Anabasis articulata is medicinally used to treat various diseases. In this study, A. articulata was initially subjected to extraction, and the resultant extracts were then evaluated for their antimicrobial, antioxidant, and antidiabetic potentials. After obtaining the methanolic extract, it was subjected to a silica gel column for separation, and fractions were collected at equal intervals. Out of the obtained fractions (most rich in bioactive compounds confirmed through HPLC), designated as A, B, C, and D as well hexane fraction, were subjected to GC-MS analysis, and a number of valuable bioactive compounds were identified from the chromatograms. The preliminary phytochemical tests were positive for the extracts where fraction A exhibited the highest total phenolic and flavonoid contents. The hexane fraction as antimicrobial agent was the most potent, followed by the crude extract, fraction A, and fraction D. DPPH and ABTS assays were used to estimate the free radical scavenging potential of the extracts. Fraction C was found to contain potent inhibitors of both the tested radicals, followed by fraction D. The potential antidiabetic extracts were determined using α-glucosidase and amylase as probe enzymes. The former was inhibited by crude extract, hexane, and A, B, C and D fractions to the extent of 85.32 ± 0.20, 61.14 ± 0.49, 62.15 ± 0.84, 78.51 ± 0.45, 72.57 ± 0.92 and 70.61 ± 0.91%, respectively, at the highest tested concentration of 1000 µg/mL with their IC50 values 32, 180, 200, 60, 120 and 140 µg/mL correspondingly, whereas α-amylase was inhibited to the extent of 83.98 ± 0.21, 58.14 ± 0.75, 59.34 ± 0.89, 81.32 ± 0.09, 74.52 ± 0.13 and 72.51 ± 0.02% (IC50 values; 34, 220, 240, 58, 180, and 200 µg/mL, respectively). The observed biological potentials might be due to high phenolic and flavonoid content as detected in the extracts. The A. articulata might thus be considered an efficient therapeutic candidate and could further be investigated for other biological potentials along with the isolation of pure responsible ingredients.