Diverticular disease of the colon is frequent in developed countries, probably due to diets poor in fiber. Prevalence increases with age, reaching 65 percent at 70 years. The preferred seat of the disease is the sigmoid colon. The disease is usually asymptomatic, but inflammatory signs are seen in 10 to 25 percent of cases. Diagnosis of diverticulitis is difficult since correlation between clinical signs and histological data is often mediocre. Surgery is carried out in 15 to 30 percent of patients presenting severe disorders, i.e. in 1 to 2 percent of the overall population presenting diverticulosis of the colon. The most efficacious method of preventing complications may be the implementation of a fiber-rich diet.