A distribution of immunoglobulin G (IgG) subclass of anti-thyroid peroxidase (TPO) autoantibodies was studied to know whether anti-TPO autoantibodies are closely implicated in the pathogenesis of human autoimmune thyroid diseases. As a result of analyzing 14 patients' sera, 7 with Graves' disease and 7 with Hashimoto's thyroiditis, anti-TPO autoantibodies were found to consist of mainly IgG1 subclass. Percentages of both IgG1 and IgG2 subclasses in IgG class of autoantibodies corresponded to those in the normal serum composition, whereas IgG3 subclass was scarcely contained in anti-TPO autoantibodies and IgG4 subclass markedly increased. It was thought that anti-TPO autoantibodies had a capability to lyse thyroid follicular cells by the mechanism of antibody-dependent complement-mediated cytolysis, because IgG1 and IgG2 subclasses of antibodies can fix complement and TPO locates in apical membrane surface of thyroid follicular cells. Comparing Graves' disease with Hashimoto's thyroiditis, mean percentages of both IgG1 and IgG2 subclasses of 2 groups were statistically different. Namely, sera of patients with Graves' disease had higher and lower mean percentages of IgG1 and IgG2 subclasses of autoantibodies, respectively, than those with Hashimoto's thyroiditis, though no plausible explanation for these differences can be offered at the present time.