Foods as a cause for migraine attacks were evaluated in 43 adults with recurrent migraine. Skin testing, elimination diets, double-blind challenges, and measurements of plasma histamine were performed. Thirteen subjects experienced 66% or greater reduction in headache frequency during a diet trial. Six subjects became headache free. Eleven of 16 skin test-positive patients responded to diet manipulation, while only two of 27 skin test-negatives did (P less than .005). Seven subjects agreed to double-blind challenges. In five of seven, at least one food provoked migraine. Placebo challenges did not provoke migraine. In three subjects, plasma histamine rose during migraine provoking challenges. The relationship between food ingestion and migraine is based in part on allergic mechanism. Tests for IgE-specific food allergy appear helpful in selecting patients likely to benefit from diet therapy.