Owl monkeys (Aotus trivirgatus) were inoculated with XJ, a pathogenic strain of Junin virus, seeking new animal models for Argentine Hemorrhagic Fever. Nine monkeys were inoculated intramuscularly with 30 or 300,000 TCID50 of junin virus. Hematological and virological studies showed no alteration in blood elements such as red cell, reticular cell and platelets, up to 28 days after inoculation. Hemoglobin and hematocrit determinations also remained constant. However, significant neutropenia was seen at day 11 and minimal viremia was detected in some animals during the second and third week post-inoculation. No clinical or behavioral modifications were observed during the eighty-days observation period. Non-specific necropsy findings included pyelonephritis, pneumonitis, liver abscess and eosinophilic spleen infiltrate. All of these findings seem to be unrelated to Junin virus inoculation. No virus was present in organs of animals killed 29, 57 or 85 days post-inoculation. All nine owl monkeys developed serum neutralizing antibodies by day 22. It is concluded that the owl monkey suffers a subclinical infection when inoculated with Junin virus, similar to that seen in other primate species (Saimiri sciureus and Alouatta caraya).