Spleen and lymph nodes from seven fatal cases of Argentine hemorrhagic fever were studied by light and electron microscopy and by immunofluorescent techniques. In addition, Junin virus infectivity was determined. Destruction of splenic white pulp and of lymph node cortex was observed. The ultrastructural study showed a characteristic cytopathic effect on the macrophages with presence of intracisternal virus-like particles and occasional virions budding from the plasma membrane. The immunofluorescent techniques indicated the presence of Junin virus antigenic determinants in the cytoplasm of macrophages in the examined organs. Junin virus titers were three times higher than in peripheral blood. These results suggest that lymphatic tissue is one of the main sites of viral replication and that the macrophages are the targets of Junin virus.