24 patients with recent diabetes mellitus (less than three years) were given an intravenous insulin infusion over a short period (84 to 252 hours) in an attempt to achieve a remission of their disease through rigorous normalization of blood glucose concentrations. After this treatment, strict control of diabetes mellitus was achieved with oral mediactions in 15 of the 24 patients. In 17 cases, onset of diabetes mellitus had been sudden and insulin was required immediately (acute cetosic diabetes: ACD); in 7 patients, signs of insulin deficiency had occurred only after seven months of hyperglycemia (secondary insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus: SIDDM). A strong probability of achieving an insulin-induced remission exists only during the first six months of ACD. The success of the insulin infusion is partly dependent upon the residual beta cell function. During the remission, which lasts for more than 12 months in 50% of cases, control of diabetes mellitus is optimal.