An epidemiological survey of urinary calculous disease has been carried out in Nigeria. This involved the use of questionnaires, personal interview of doctors and clinical and autopsy reviews in several large medical centres in the country. It is evident that urinary calculi are rare among Nigerians in spite of the high temperature and high carbohydrate diet. There does not appear to be any particular tribe or geographical location that is more predisposed to stone formation than the others. It is possible that the low calcium content of Nigerian waters, the minimal consumption of dairy products, the physically active life and some other unknown factors protect Nigerians against urinary calculus formation.