The hepatic metabolism of [1-14C]oleate- and [1,2-3H]cholesterol-dual-labelled chylomicron remnants derived from olive, corn, palm and fish oil and butter fat was compared by adding each lipoprotein separately to the perfusate of isolated livers from rats fed on a normal diet. Labelled remnants from butter fat and fish oil were removed more rapidly from the perfusate than remnants derived from olive, corn and palm oil. The oxidation of labelled remnant fatty acid from olive oil, fish oil or butter fat was four to seven times greater than that from corn and palm oil. Labelled fatty acid in fish oil remnants was incorporated into phospholipid significantly more efficiently than the labelled fatty acid in olive, corn or palm oil remnants, with butter fat giving an intermediate value. For all the remnants, there was a significant amount of hydrolysis of labelled esterified cholesterol by the liver which was dependent on the magnitude of hepatic uptake of each type of remnant. The recovery of remnant [3H]cholesterol label in the bile was 50% less with palm oil remnants than with all the other remnants studied. The results indicate that the fatty acid composition of chylomicron remnants has a major impact on their uptake and metabolism by the liver.