The association of alcohol, diet, and other lifestyle factors with obstructive uropathy was investigated in a cohort of 6581 Japanese-American men, examined and interviewed from 1971 to 1975 in Hawaii. By studying this migrant population with its heterogeneous exposures, it increases the probabilities of identifying potential risk factors of this prostate disorder. After 17 years of follow-up, 846 incident cases of surgically treated obstructive uropathy were diagnosed with benign prostatic hyperplasia. Total alcohol intake was inversely associated with obstructive uropathy (P < 0.0001). The relative risk was 0.64 (95% confidence interval: 0.52-0.78) for men drinking at least 25 ounces of alcohol per month compared with nondrinkers. Among the 4 sources of alcohol, a significant inverse association was present for beer, wine, and sake, but not for spirits. Buddhist (vs. other) religion, rural (vs. urban) birthplace, and the presence of prostate symptoms were each associated with increased risk of obstructive uropathy, but no association was found with education, number of marriages, or cigarette smoking. Increased beef intake was weakly related to an increased risk (P = 0.047), while no association was found with the consumption of 32 other food items in the study.