We report 4 cases and review 7 from the literature with a pattern suggesting a variable early lethal multiple congenital anomaly syndrome. This was first reported by von Voss et al. [1979: "Klinische Genetik in der Pädiatrie," pp 70-74] and Cherstvoy et al. [1980: Lancet ii:485], and can affect upper limbs, face, brain, heart, lungs, urogenital and gastrointestinal systems, vertebrae and ribs, and can include thrombocytopenia. The initial cases had occipital encephaloceles and phocomelia, but milder cerebellar anomalies and radial ray defects may be seen instead. Both sexes are affected and parental age is not increased. This may be heterogeneous, but two consanguineous families, one with recurrences, suggest autosomal recessive inheritance in at least some instances, although the recurrences had milder brain findings than the other cases. The original designation of DK-phocomelia syndrome is inaccurate, since arm findings may be limited to radial anomalies; we suggest instead the von Voss-Cherstvoy syndrome. This may be heterogeneous, but at present, phenotypic overlap prevents differentiation of subgroups. The disorder appears to be part of a group of syndromes with radial and hematologic abnormalities.