As the scope of the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) epidemic grows to include increasingly larger proportions of heterosexual adults and children, there has also been a change in the severity of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-related periodontal conditions at one San Francisco clinic. The cases of HIV-associated gingivitis, now called linear gingival erythema, HIV-associated periodontitis (or necrotizing ulcerative periodontitis), and necrotizing stomatitis have been less severe, despite an increase in overall HIV caseload. No clear basis for this trend has been established, but possible explanations include: biased population samples, increased immunosuppression as the disease matures, use of antimicrobial therapy, or a change in patient demographics. Several studies have failed to identify a single causative organism. This article presents a review of HIV-related periodontal complications and points out that the condition can be treated with local and systemic antibiotics and that dental professionals throughout the world can expect a tremendous increase over the next several years in HIV-infected patients with special clinical complications.