The popliteal artery is a common recipient site for above or below knee bypass grafts. It is also frequently affected by penetrating and blunt trauma involving the lower extremity. Exposure of this artery is, therefore, often required in both emergent and elective vascular procedures. In close proximity to the artery, within the confines of the popliteal fossa, are the tibial nerve, common peroneal nerve, and the popliteal vein. An understanding of the normal anatomy and the important variations in the popliteal bifurcation patterns is essential. In this report, we have combined data from new cadaver dissections with prior anatomical data to describe the anatomy of the popliteal fossa and important vascular anomalies.