A study of knowledge and management of malaria was undertaken prospectively in 20 dispensaries, 20 drug stores, 120 patients attending dispensaries and 120 customers at drug stores in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. This was a descriptive study where two different questionnaires were developed and administered to the target groups in oral interview. All the respondents were aged 14 years and above. The results of the interview showed that the knowledge of rural medical aides (RMA's) on signs and symptoms of malaria and which drugs cure malaria was satisfactory. However, only 65% of the RMA's could remember the correct dose of chloroquine for an adult. Although the knowledge of drug sellers on signs and symptoms of malaria was adequate, 45% of them did not know the correct dose of chloroquine. In view of the fact that only 30% of patients and 20% of shoppers knew the correct dose of chloroquine for adults, it appears that their management of malaria is inadequate. To improve the management of malaria at dispensary and drug store level, there is a need to introduce treatment charts and/or guidelines and the Ministry of Health should promote health education to the public.