From the scientific point of research, little attention has been paid to South Sinai Governorate. In this paper, it was aimed to study the rodent population and their arthropod ectoparasites in three selected areas; St. Catherine, Wadi Sahab and Wadi Feran. The highest rodent trap index was in St. Catherine, followed by Wadi Sahab and then Wadi Feran. Mus musculus was predominant mainly indoors in the three areas while Acomys C. dimidiatus was predominant mainly outdoors. Dipodillus dasyurus was found in St. Catherine and Wadi Sahab, Eliomys quercinus in St. Catherine and Wadi Feran and Meriones sacramenti in Wadi Feran. The commonest arthropod ectoparasites in a descending order were Xenopsylla cheopis, X. ramesis, Ctenocephalides canis, Rhipicephalus sp., Hyalomma sp., Ornithonyssus bacoti (on M. musculus), Haemogamasus pontiger, Hirstionyssus isabellinus (on A.c. dimidiatus and Meriones sacramenti). The medical and veterinary importance of the results were discussed.