Sex steroids in oral contraceptives exert several effects on the central nervous system and are therefore of concern when used by neurologically compromised women. In general, oral contraceptives do not aggravate epileptic seizures and are not contraindicated in cases of tension headache. Oral contraceptives can be used in cases of migraine without focal neurologic symptoms as long as headache symptoms do not worsen. Levels of sex steroids can be diminished through enzyme induction by antiepileptic drugs, giving rise to the possibility of contraceptive failure and exposure of the fetus to the teratogenic properties of antiseizure medications. Women with common migraine (without focal neurologic symptoms) who are taking oral contraceptives should be monitored for possible exacerbation of their symptoms. Women who do experience worsening of headache symptomatology when taking the pill should consider alternate means of contraception.