We studied the pathological findings of sural nerve biopsy in 41 patients with Charcot-Marie-Tooth (CMT) disease. They were previously classified by the median motor conduction velocity (MCV) in two types. Type I (demyelinating) with 9 patients and type II (axonal) with 32 cases. In type I we found loss of myelinated fibers (unimodal histogram), demyelinated and remyelinated axons with numerous onion bulb formations. In one case there was thickness of myelin with thin axons (axonal atrophy). In type II there were seven patients with normal sural nerve biopsy. In 25 cases there were mild to severe loss of myelinated fibers. In 5 patients the number of myelinated fibers was increased due to the great regeneration of the axons. The electron microscopic studies in type II showed in a few cases small onion bulbs and in one case axonal atrophy. In type I there was no correlation between clinical severity and the loss of myelinated fibers, but there was relationship between the low MCV and the intensity of myelinated fibers. In type II we did not found any correlation between clinical course, MCV and pathological findings.