A case of squamous cell carcinoma of the left renal pelvis associated with chronic renal failure on hemodialysis is reported. The patient, a 59-year-old man, had undergone bilateral nephrolithotomy, in 1966, followed by right ureterolithotomy and bilateral percutaneous nephrolithotripsy, but residual stones existed. He suffered from left flak pain and fever, and computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed left perirenal abscess in July 1994. Percutaneous drainage and antibacterial chemotherapy were performed, but his symptoms did not improve. Three months later, CT and MRI revealed a mass in the left perirenal space and destruction of the 12th thoracic vertebra, which were considered to be infectious changes. On November 9, 1994, left nephrectomy was performed. Histopathological diagnosis was moderately differentiated squamous cell carcinoma, grade 2, INF-gamma, pT4, pR1, pL0 and pV1. In spite of irradiation therapy, he died on January 19, 1995.