A specific and sensitive solid-phase radioimmunoassay has been developed for the detection of LCM virus antigens and anti-LCM virus antibodies. The test was performed in a microtiter system using polyvinylcholoride wells coated with anti-LCM virus rabbit hyperimmune serum. LCM virus antigens were allowed to bind to this antibody and afterwards detected by 125J-labeled anti-LCM virus-gamma-globulin. Anti-LCM virus antibodies were assayed by specific inhibition of these bound antigens. Since this technique is rapid and easy to perform the solid-phase radioimmunoassay is a valuable test for detecting LCM virus infections. Selected at random, 208 girls with, and 208 girls without, contact to Syrian hamsters were investigated for anti-LCM virus antibodies. Five (2.4%) of the hamster-exposed girls had anti-LCM virus antibodies (RIA-titer 1:8-1:32) in contrast to none of the control group (P=0.03).