For children with life-threatening inborn errors of metabolism without a matched related bone marrow donor, transplantation from an HLA genetically nonidentical donor is the only therapeutic option. To reduce the high risk of graft rejection in this setting without increasing the conditioning regimen, a protocol based on the infusion of an antiadhesion antibody directed against the CD11a (leukocyte function-associated antigen 1 [LFA-1]) molecule was performed by the European Bone Marrow Transplantation-European Society for Immunodeficiency group with promising results. To optimize engraftment, and thereby survival, further, the additional blockade of a second important leukocyte adhesion and signalization pathway mediated by the CD2 and LFA-3 interaction was attempted in a multicenter protocol conducted by the European Bone Marrow Transplantation-European Society for Immunodeficiency group. Results of this study (ie, engraftment and survival) were compared with a historical control group that received the anti-LFA-1 antibody alone. Factors that may have affected engraftment and survival were also considered in this study.
Forty-four children with inborn errors, including inherited immunodeficiencies (excluding severe combined immunodeficiencies), Chédiak-Higashi syndrome, familial hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis, and malignant osteopetrosis, received bone marrow from HLA-nonidentical related donors or from HLA-identical unrelated donors at 13 European centers between August 1990 and June 1993. Bone marrow was depleted of T cells by use of either erythrocyte (E) rosetting or monoclonal antibodies (MoAbs) to prevent graft-versus-host disease. The conditioning regimen consisted of busulfan and cyclophosphamide for all patients plus etoposide for patients with osteopetrosis, familial hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis, and Chédiak-Higashi syndrome. Infusions of MoAbs specific for the CD11a and the CD2 molecules were started 4 and 3 days, respectively, before and continued through the first 10 and 11 days, respectively, after bone marrow transplantation (a total of 14 injections).
The overall sustained engraftment rate was 69.8%, with full chimerism in 80.6% of patients and no late graft rejection with the use of two MoAbs versus 65.7% and 58.1%, respectively, in the control group, in which only one MoAb was infused. The overall actuarial survival rate with a functional graft was 40.9%, with a mean follow-up of 39.3 months with two MoAbs versus 37.8% with one. The engraftment rate was significantly influenced by the T-cell depletion method, with better results for recipients of E rosette- depleted marrow (78.6% vs 20% for Campath 1-M plus complement-depleted marrows). Graft-versus-host disease and the kinetics of immune reconstitution were similar in both groups.
The overall engraftment rate and overall survival rate with engraftment in patients treated with anti-LFA-1 and anti-CD2 were similar to those in patients treated with anti-LFA-1 antibody alone. However, although the number of patients is too small to draw definitive conclusions, results from the combined use of the two MoAbs indicates a trend toward better engraftment and survival after infusion of E rosette-depleted marrow. Further improvement in survival would demand additional strategies to hasten immunologic recovery.