To understand better the microcirculation in the inner ear in relation to blood viscosity, we examined the effects of pentoxifylline (PXF) and nitroprusside (NP) on cochlear blood flow (CBF) in healthy adult guinea pigs in relationship to various hematocrit (H1) values. There was no correlation between Ht value and the maximum decrease of mean blood pressure after PXF infusion, whereas there was a positive correlation between Ht and the maximum increase in CBF. No such relationship was found after NP infusion. A graph plot of each animal's blood oxygen transport capacity (i.e., Ht/blood viscosity) was found to have a convex form and to increase with a shift of the peak to a higher Ht area after PXF infusion. These findings indicate that a decrease in blood viscosity may improve CBF and increase oxygen transport capacity of blood.