These experiments addressed the role of 5-HT2 receptors in conditioned olfactory learning. Ritanserin, a 5-HT2A/2C antagonist, was injected subcutaneously into postnatal day (PND) 7 pups before or after conditioned olfactory training to a peppermint odor. When the pups were tested for olfactory preference on PND 8, those injected with ritanserin before training failed to acquire an odor preference whereas those injected after training learned. This suggested that the 5-HT2 receptor is required only in the acquisition of conditioned olfactory learning. Injection of ritanserin directly into the olfactory bulb before training also blocked preference for the peppermint odor. In pups that had depletion of the 5-HT input to the bulb, subcutaneous injection of a 5-HT2A/2C agonist was sufficient to maintain conditioned olfactory learning, confirming the importance of 5-HT in learning.