In a case-control study of 1647 breast cancer cases and 1501 population controls under 45 years of age, potential modifying effects of other risk factors on the relationship of oral contraceptives to breast cancer were examined. Among the total series of study subjects, the relationship of extended pill usage was greater in non-white than white women. Oral contraceptive associations, however, did not appear to be substantially modified by other risk factors, including parity, body size, or family history of breast cancer (apart from a somewhat enhanced relationship among subjects who reported a sister with breast cancer. Further, oral contraceptive relationships did not vary by a history of benign breast disease, although the majority of subjects began pill usage prior to the development of benign breast disease. Among the women under the age of 35, in whom oral contraceptive relationships were heightened (over a twofold excess risk for use of 5 years or longer), pill relationships were less modified by race than in the total series. Although among these younger subjects there was no effect of pill usage in heavy women, and an enhanced relationship among heavier consumers of alcoholic beverages, these interactive effects were not statistically significant. The findings of this study generally support no substantial variation in oral contraceptive relationships by other breast cancer risk factors, although some further attention might be warranted regarding possible modifying effects of race, body size, type of relative with breast cancer, and alcohol consumption.