To report macular abnormalities associated with posterior staphyloma in eyes with myopia.
In a retrospective study, we surveyed 116 eyes of 58 patients with myopic refractions. Myopic fundus abnormalities are related to clinically quantified posterior staphyloma formation.
A posterior staphyloma was present in 88 (75.9%) of 116 eyes with myopic refractions of -3 diopters or more. Best-corrected visual acuity was decreased among eyes in all staphyloma grades. Eyes with the shallowest staphyloma depth (grade 1) displayed the largest drop in visual acuity as well as the greatest frequency of choroidal neovascular membranes and hemorrhages. A linear relationship was observed between staphyloma grade and conus formation (P = .001), retinal pigment epithelial defects (P = .0001), lacquer cracks (P = .0001), and chorioretinal atrophy (P = .001). All these variables were increased in staphylomatous eyes. A significant difference in means by staphyloma grade was observed for myopic refractive error (P = .001), axial length (P = .001), and best-corrected visual acuity (logMAR, P = .0001).
There was an unexpected high frequency of choroidal neovascular membranes, hemorrhage, and poor best-corrected visual acuity in the lower staphyloma categories. This suggests that the development of a choroidal neovascular membrane requires relative preservation of the choriocapillaris as present in eyes with less advanced stages of posterior staphyloma formation.