The cysteinyl leukotrienes (LTC4, LTD4 and LTE4) have been implicated in the pathogenesis of allergen-induced airway responses. The effects of pretreatment with BAYx 1005, an inhibitor of leukotriene biosynthesis via antagonism of 5-lipoxygenase activating protein, on allergen-induced early and late asthmatic responses has been evaluated.
Eight atopic subjects with mild asthma participated in a two period, double blind, placebo controlled, cross-over trial. Subjects were selected on the basis of a forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) of > 70% predicted, a methacholine provocative concentration causing a 20% fall in FEV1 (PC20) of < 32 mg/ ml, a documented allergen-induced early response (EAR, > 15% fall in FEV1 0-1 hour after allergen inhalation) and late response (LAR, > 15% fall in FEV1 3-7 hours after allergen inhalation), and allergen-induced airway hyperresponsiveness (at least a doubling dose reduction in the methacholine PC20 30 hours after allergen inhalation). During the treatment periods subjects received BAYx 1005 (500 mg twice daily) or placebo for 3.5 days; treatment periods were separated by at least two weeks. On the third day of treatment, two hours after administration of medication, subjects performed an allergen inhalation challenge and FEV1 was measured for seven hours.
Treatment with BAYx 1005 attenuated the magnitude of both the allergen-induced early and late asthmatic responses. The mean (SE) maximal fall in FEV1 during the EAR was 26.6 (3.3)% during placebo treatment and 11.4 (3.3)% during treatment with BAYx 1005 (mean difference 15.2 (95% confidence interval (CI) 9.4 to 21.00) with a mean protection afforded by BAYx 1005 of 57.1%. The mean (SE) maximal fall in FEV1 during the LAR was 19.8 (5.7)% during placebo treatment and 10.7 (4.4)% during BAYx 1005 treatment (mean difference 9.2 (95% CI 1.4 to 17.0) with a mean protection afforded by BAYx 1005 of 46.0%. The area under the time response curve (AUC0-3) was also reduced after treatment with BAYx 1005 compared with placebo by 86.5%.h (mean difference 26.3 (95% CI 17.1 to 38.5)) and the AUC3-7 by 59.6%.h (mean difference 26.9 (95% CI-3.8 to 57.6)).
These results show that antagonism of 5-lipoxygenase activating protein can attenuate allergen-induced bronchoconstrictor responses and support an important role for the cysteinyl leukotrienes in mediating these asthmatic responses.