Our retrospective study has shown that hyperlipidemia is a novel etiologic factor in deep-vein thrombosis (DVT) and that most of the idiopathic DVT patients were hyperlipidemic (Thrombosis Research 79, 147-151, 1995). The aim of our current study is to analyze the interrelationship between hyperlipidemia and DVT by means of a case-control study. A series of lipid parameters were analyzed using serum from 109 patients with deep vein thrombosis (DVT). One hundred nine age- and sex-matched subjects served as controls. Diagnosis of hyperlipidemia was made if the serum cholesterol level was above 220 mg/dL or if the triglyceride level was above 150 mg/dL. Among several types of hyperlipidemia examined, the risk factor associated with the highest estimated odds ratio was carriage of hypercholesterolemia associated with hypertriglyceridemia (odds ratio 5.1) followed in order by hypercholesterolemia without hypertriglyceridemia (odds ratio 2.6) and hypertriglyceridemia without hypercholesterolemia (odds ratio 0.9). These findings support the hypothesis that hypercholesterolemia plays an important role in the pathogenesis of DVT.