Tardive dyskinesia is an involuntary movement disorder developing following treatment with neuroleptics. As many as 50% of chronic psychotic patients develop this disabling condition. No treatment has been found effective for tardive dyskinesia. This study was undertaken to meta-analyze the effects of vitamin E (alpha-tocopherol) reported in the last decade. All studies published since 1987, focusing on vitamin E and tardive dyskinesia are reviewed. Double-blind studies are analyzed using measures of effect and variance as described by secondary analysis of magnitude of effects in pooled data. A total of 223 patients received vitamin E treatment (400-1600 IU/day) for tardive dyskinesia, in 12 studies. A significant subgroup (28.3%) showed a modest improvement. Vitamin E was well tolerated, and only rarely did side effects occur-of no clinical significance. Vitamin E is a safe, well-tolerated compound that may provide some beneficial effects in patients suffering from neuroleptic-induced tardive dyskinesia.