Peripheral motor and sensory nerve conduction velocities were studied prospectively in 54 chronic haemodialysis patients. The most sensitive parameters for the detection of polyneuropathy were the deep peroneal nerve motor conduction velocity, the sural nerve sensory conduction velocity and the H-reflex latency and H-index of the S1 roots. All patients examined were found to present at least one abnormal nerve conduction parameter. In the present study the side of the arteriovenous shunt had no statistically significant effect on the sensory and motor nerve conduction velocities in the upper extremities. There was a significant correlation between H-reflex latency and H-reflex index, and between H-reflex latency and sural nerve sensory conduction velocity.