- Development of a thrombus in the superior mesenteric artery associated with sequential therapy with tyrosine kinase inhibitors for hepatocellular carcinoma. [Journal Article]
- CJClin J Gastroenterol 2019 Jul 17
- Tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) are widely used for systemic chemotherapy of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Arterial thromboembolism (ATE) has been reported to be an adverse event associated with …
Tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) are widely used for systemic chemotherapy of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Arterial thromboembolism (ATE) has been reported to be an adverse event associated with TKI therapy, but its incidence is rare. Here, we report a case of an HCC patient who developed a thrombus in the superior mesenteric artery (SMA) while on TKI therapy. The patient was a 78-year-old Japanese man with hepatitis C virus-associated HCC with multiple nodules. Several sessions of transarterial chemoembolization therapy caused him to become refractory to the treatment. Sorafenib and regorafenib therapy had also been previously performed, but his disease continued to progress gradually. Therefore, we started lenvatinib therapy. When a contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CT) examination was performed 2 months later, we found a thrombus in the SMA. Retrospective analysis of the CT images revealed that the thrombus formed during the sorafenib-regorafenib sequential therapy and it developed rapidly, especially during the lenvatinib therapy. An HCC patient developed a thrombus in the SMA during TKI therapy. The incidence of ATE is rare in TKI treatment; however, long-term or sequential TKI therapy may increase the frequency of ATE. Further study is needed.
- Did kindergarteners who experienced the Great East Japan earthquake as infants develop traumatic symptoms? Series of questionnaire-based cross-sectional surveys: A concise and informative title: traumatic symptoms of kindergarteners who experienced disasters as infants. [Journal Article]
- AJAsian J Psychiatr 2019 Jul 05; 44:38-44
- CONCLUSIONS: The traumatic symptoms of kindergarteners were not related to disaster experiences.
- A non-parametric statistical test of null treatment effect in sub-populations. [Journal Article]
- JBJ Biopharm Stat 2019 Jul 15; :1-17
- Randomized clinical trials are designed to estimate the average treatment effect (ATE). If heterogeneity of treatment effect exists, then it is possible that there may be subjects who derive a treatm…
Randomized clinical trials are designed to estimate the average treatment effect (ATE). If heterogeneity of treatment effect exists, then it is possible that there may be subjects who derive a treatment effect different from the ATE. We propose a method to test the hypothesis that there exist subjects who derive benefit (or harm) against the null hypothesis that the treatment has no benefit (or harm) on each of the smallest sub-populations defined by discrete baseline covariates. Our approach is nonparametric, which generates the null distribution of the test statistic by the permutation principle. A key innovation of our method is that stochastic simulation is built into the test statistic to detect signals that may not be linearly related to the multiple covariates. This is important because, in many real clinical problems, the treatment effect is not linearly correlated with relevant baseline characteristics. We applied the method to a real randomized study that compared the Implantable Cardioverter Defibrillator (ICD) with conventional medical therapy in reducing total mortality in a low ejection fraction population. Simulations and power calculations were performed to compare the proposed test with existing methods.
- Effects of high-fat diet on feeding and performance in the tobacco hornworm, Manduca sexta. [Journal Article]
- CBComp Biochem Physiol A Mol Integr Physiol 2019 Jul 11; :110526
- Nutritionally balanced diets are important for overall fitness. For insects, fat is vital for development due to its high-energy value. Little is known about how insects regulate dietary fat for stor…
Nutritionally balanced diets are important for overall fitness. For insects, fat is vital for development due to its high-energy value. Little is known about how insects regulate dietary fat for storage, but research has shown conflicting results on how altering fat impacts development and performance. In this study, we sought to investigate how high-fat diets affect developing insects. To determine how insects respond to variation in dietary fat content, we reared Manduca sexta of different larval stages on diets containing varying concentrations of linseed oil in high (5.6%), medium (3.4%) or low (0.4%) fat. Young larvae reared on high-fat diets had 80% mortality and 43% lower body mass compared to those reared on medium- or low-fat diets. Older larvae showed no difference in mortality with increasing dietary fat content, but they were smaller than controls, suggesting a developmental shift in lipid metabolism. We measured mRNA expression of Apolipoprotein I and II (APO1 and 2), proteins responsible for transporting lipids, as a possible explanation of increased survival in older larvae. Levels of APO1 and 2 mRNA did not differ with dietary fat content. We then tested the hypothesis that the high-fat diet altered feeding, resulting in the observed decrease in body size. Caterpillars fed a high-fat diet indeed ate less, as indicated by a decrease in food consumption and the number and mass of fecal pellets produced. These results suggest that increased fat disrupted feeding and may indicate that there is a threshold for lipid storage, but further studies are needed to understand the underlying mechanism.
- Markers of adipose tissue inflammation are transiently elevated during intermittent fasting in women who are overweight or obese. [Journal Article]
- ORObes Res Clin Pract 2019 Jul 11
- CONCLUSIONS: Unlike caloric restriction, IF transiently elevated markers of macrophage infiltration in adipose tissue and skeletal muscle, possibly in response to marked increases in adipose tissue lipolysis.
- Which type of pollutants need to be controlled with priority in wastewater treatment plants: Traditional or emerging pollutants? [Journal Article]
- EIEnviron Int 2019 Jul 09; 131:104982
- Although wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) can purify wastewater, they also discharge numerous contaminants into the environment through effluent discharge and sludge disposal. The occurrence, emis…
Although wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) can purify wastewater, they also discharge numerous contaminants into the environment through effluent discharge and sludge disposal. The occurrence, emission flux, and risk assessment of traditional pollutants (e.g., heavy metals [HMs]), and emerging pollutants (e.g., perfluoroalkyl substances [PFASs] and pharmaceutical and personal care products [PPCPs]) in WWTP emissions are of important concern. The present study analyzed 17 PFASs, 25 PPCPs, and 8 HMs in influent, effluent, and excess sludge from six WWTPs along the Yanghe River, North China. Samples were collected during four sampling campaigns from November 2016 to July 2017. The mean concentrations of PFASs and PPCPs in influent were 46.4 ng L-1 and 6.57 μg L-1, respectively; while those in effluent were 38.5 ng L-1 and 2.14 μg L-1, respectively. The highest concentrations of HMs was detected of Zn in influent (2,866 μg L-1) and effluent (3,960 μg L-1). According to the concentration composition, short-chain PFASs, fluoroquinolones (FQs), and Zn were the predominant components in both influents and effluents. The mean PFAS and PPCP concentrations in excess sludge were 5.95 ng g-1 and 3.74 μg g-1 dry weight (dw). Zn was the most abundant HMs in excess sludge with the concentration range of 156-14,271 μg g-1 dw. The compositions of PFASs, PPCPs and HMs differed between wastewater and excess sludge. The estimated emission flux of these pollutants was ordered as HMs > PPCPs > PFASs through effluent discharge and sludge disposal. Sludge disposal discharged more PPCPs and HMs into the environment than effluent discharge, which was contrary for PFASs. Relative risk of each pollutant is calculated by comparing the mean effluent concentration with the median effective concentration. Algae and fish were selected as recipient organisms to calculate the relative risk of 23 selected pollutants towards aquatic organisms. The highest-risk pollutant was Zn on both algae and fish, while perfluorobutane sulfonate (PFBS) and atenolol (ATE) posed the lowest risk. In general, HMs (regarded as traditional pollutants) presented higher risks in effluent, followed by the emerging pollutants (PPCPs and PFASs). Therefore, control of traditional pollutants should be prioritized in WWTPs in this region. This study presents an overall assessment of the current status of traditional and emerging pollutants in WWTPs and provides useful information for upgrading wastewater treatment processes.
- Health profile differences between recipients and non-recipients of the Brazilian Income Transfer Program in a low-income population. [Journal Article]
- CSCad Saude Publica 2019 Jul 04; 35(6):e00141218
- We investigated the relationship between living in a household that receives the Brazilian Income Transfer Program (Bolsa Família, in Portuguese - BF), a Brazilian conditional cash transfer program, …
We investigated the relationship between living in a household that receives the Brazilian Income Transfer Program (Bolsa Família, in Portuguese - BF), a Brazilian conditional cash transfer program, and aspects of health and whether these relationships are heterogeneous across the 27 Brazilian states. According to data from the 2013 Brazilian National Health Survey, 18% of households participated in BF. Among households with household per capita income below BRL 500, many aspects of health differed between people living in BF and non-BF houses. For example, BF households were less likely to have medical coverage but more likely to have visited the doctor in the last 12 months as well as being more likely to smoke and less likely to do exercise. They ate nearly one less serving of fruits and vegetables a week but were less likely to substitute junk food for a meal. They reported worse self-rated health but did not differ importantly on reporting illnesses. Moderate amounts of heterogeneity in the difference in health characteristics were found for some variables. For instance, medical coverage had an I2 value of 40.7% and the difference in coverage between BF and non-BF households ranged from -0.09 to -0.03. Some illnesses differed qualitatively across states such as high cholesterol, asthma and arthritis. This paper is the first to outline the health profile of people living in households receiving payments from a cash transfer program. It is also the first to find geographic heterogeneity in the relationship between a cash transfer program and health variables. These results suggest the possibility that the effect of cash transfer programs may differ based on the population on which it is implemented.
- Termites manipulate moisture content of wood to maximize foraging resources. [Journal Article]
- BLBiol Lett 2019 Jul 26; 15(7):20190365
- Animals use cues to find their food, in microhabitats within their physiological tolerances. Termites build and modify their microhabitat, to transform hostile environments into benign ones, which ra…
Animals use cues to find their food, in microhabitats within their physiological tolerances. Termites build and modify their microhabitat, to transform hostile environments into benign ones, which raises questions about the relative importance of cues. Termites are desiccation intolerant and foraging termites are attracted to water, so most research has considered moisture to be a cue. However, termites can also transport water to food, and so moisture may play other roles than previously considered. To examine the role of moisture, we compared Coptotermes acinaciformis termite foraging decisions in laboratory experiments when they were offered dry and moist wood, with and without load. Without load, termites preferred moist wood and ate it without any building, whereas they moistened dry wood after wrapping it in a layer of clay. For the 'With load' units, termites substituted some of the wood for load-bearing clay walls, and kept the wood drier than on the unloaded units. As drier wood has higher compressive strength and higher rigidity, it allows more of the wood to be consumed. These results suggest that moisture plays a more important role in termite ecology than previously thought. Termites manipulate the moisture content according to the situational context and use it for multiple purposes: increased moisture levels soften the fibre, which facilitates foraging, yet keeping the wood dry provides higher structural stability against buckling which is especially important when foraging on wood under load.
- Food habits during treatment of childhood cancer: a critical review. [Journal Article]
- NRNutr Res Rev 2019 Jul 09; :1-17
- Several factors can affect the nutritional status of children undergoing cancer therapy. The present review aims to describe children's food intake during cancer treatments and to explore the contrib…
Several factors can affect the nutritional status of children undergoing cancer therapy. The present review aims to describe children's food intake during cancer treatments and to explore the contributing determinants. It also assesses the nutritional educational interventions developed for this clientele. Scientific literature from January 1995 to January 2018 was searched through PubMed and MEDLINE using keywords related to childhood cancer and nutritional intake. Quantitative and qualitative studies were reviewed: forty-seven articles were selected: thirty-eight related to food intake and parental practices and nine related to nutritional interventions. Patients' intakes in energy, macronutrients and micronutrients were compared with those of healthy controls or with requirement standards. Generally, patients ate less energy and proteins than healthy children, but adhered similarly to national guidelines. There is a lack of consensus for standard nutrient requirement in this population and a need for more prospective evaluations. Qualitative studies provide an insight into the perceptions of children, parents and nurses on several determinants influencing eating behaviours, including the type of treatment and their side effects. Parental practices were found to be diverse. In general, savoury and salty foods were preferred to sweet foods. Finally, most interventional studies in childhood cancer have presented their protocol or assessed the feasibility of an intervention. Therefore, because of the variability of study designs and since only a few studies have presented results, their impact on the development of healthful eating habits remains unclear. A better understanding of children's nutritional intakes and eating behaviours during cancer treatment could guide future nutritional interventions.
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- Genetic Permissiveness and Dietary Glycemic Load Interact to Predict Type-II Diabetes in the Nile rat (Arvicanthis niloticus). [Journal Article]
- NNutrients 2019 Jul 06; 11(7)
- The Nile rat (Arvicanthis niloticus) is a superior model for Type-II Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM) induced by diets with a high glycemic index (GI) and glycemic load (GLoad). To better define the age and …
The Nile rat (Arvicanthis niloticus) is a superior model for Type-II Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM) induced by diets with a high glycemic index (GI) and glycemic load (GLoad). To better define the age and gender attributes of diabetes in early stages of progression, weanling rats were fed a high carbohydrate (hiCHO) diet for between 2 to 10 weeks. Methods. Data from four experiments compared two diabetogenic semipurified diets (Diet 133 (60:20:20, as % energy from CHO, fat, protein with a high glycemic load (GLoad) of 224 per 2000 kcal) versus Diets 73MBS or 73MB (70:10:20 with or without sucrose and higher GLoads of 259 or 295, respectively). An epidemiological technique was used to stratify the diabetes into quintiles of blood glucose (Q1 to Q5), after 2-10 weeks of dietary induction in 654 rats. The related metagenetic physiological growth and metabolic outcomes were related to the degree of diabetes based on fasting blood glucose (FBG), random blood glucose (RBG), and oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) at 30 minutes and 60 minutes. Results. Experiment 1 (Diet 73MBS) demonstrated that the diabetes begins aggressively in weanlings during the first 2 weeks of a hiCHO challenge, linking genetic permissiveness to diabetes susceptibility or resistance from an early age. In Experiment 2, ninety male Nile rats fed Diet 133 (60:20:20) for 10 weeks identified two quintiles of resistant rats (Q1,Q2) that lowered their RBG between 6 weeks and 10 weeks on diet, whereas Q3-Q5 became progressively more diabetic, suggesting an ongoing struggle for control over glucose metabolism, which either stabilized or not, depending on genetic permissiveness. Experiment 3 (32 males fed 70:10:20) and Experiment 4 (30 females fed 60:20:20) lasted 8 weeks and 3 weeks respectively, for gender and time comparisons. The most telling link between a quintile rank and diabetes risk was telegraphed by energy intake (kcal/day) that established the cumulative GLoad per rat for the entire trial, which was apparent from the first week of feeding. This genetic permissiveness associated with hyperphagia across quintiles was maintained throughout the study and was mirrored in body weight gain without appreciable differences in feed efficiency. This suggests that appetite and greater growth rate linked to a fiber-free high GLoad diet were the dominant factors driving the diabetes. Male rats fed the highest GLoad diet (Diet 73MB 70:10:20, GLoad 295 per 2000 kcal for 8 weeks in Experiment 3], ate more calories and developed diabetes even more aggressively, again emphasizing the Cumulative GLoad as a primary stressor for expressing the genetic permissiveness underlying the diabetes. Conclusion: Thus, the Nile rat model, unlike other rodents but similar to humans, represents a superior model for high GLoad, low-fiber diets that induce diabetes from an early age in a manner similar to the dietary paradigm underlying T2DM in humans, most likely originating in childhood.