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- Pleistocene fossil woods from the Okote Member, site FwJj 14 in the Ileret region, Koobi Fora Formation, northern Kenya. [Journal Article]
- JHJ Hum Evol 2017; 112:134-147
- On the eastern side of Lake Turkana in northern Kenya are extensive Plio-Pleistocene deposits containing a rich diversity of fossil mammals, hominins and flora within the radiometrically dated tuffac…
On the eastern side of Lake Turkana in northern Kenya are extensive Plio-Pleistocene deposits containing a rich diversity of fossil mammals, hominins and flora within the radiometrically dated tuffaceous, lacustrine and fluvial sequence. Reconstruction of this landscape and paleoenvironment are part of an ongoing multinational and multidisciplinary human evolution project in the eastern Turkana Basin. Today there is a huge lake in the Rift Valley but it has fluctuated since the early Pliocene. Silicified wood is fairly common in some areas of the Koobi Fora Formation. One such site is FwJj 14E, alongside one of the tributaries of the Ileret River. Hominin hand and arm bones have been excavated from here in the Okote Member and dated at 1.56-1.36 Ma. The fossils are associated with hominin and bovid footprints. Sixty of the over 100 wood specimens collected have been sectioned and studied. In general the woods have large vessels and an average vulnerability index of 40, which implies a mesic megathermal environment with no water stress. Taxonomically the woods belong to large African families: Caesalpiniaceae (Didelotia idae), Combretaceae (Anogeissus sp.), Putranjivaceae (Euphorbiaceae; Drypetes sp.), Lamiaceae (cf Premna sp.), Malvaceae (Heritiera sp.) and Sapindaceae (Sapindoxylon sp.). Most of these taxa do not occur in the area today because now it is much drier and the local vegetation is predominantly Acacia-Commiphora-Salvadora shrubland. The reconstruction of the paleovegetation supports the interpretation from the fauna, namely, a tall riverine forest with shady refuge trees, possibly some edible fruits, and wooded grassland and more open bushland in the vicinity.
- Description of two new species of bat fleas of the genus Araeopsylla (Siphonaptera) from Kenya and Madagascar with notes on miscellaneous bat fleas. [Journal Article]
- ZZookeys 2016; (572):7-21
- The flea genus Araeopsylla Jordan and Rothschild, 1921 contains nine species distributed throughout the Palaearctic, Ethiopian and Oriental Regions primarily on mollosid bats. A new species of bat fl…
The flea genus Araeopsylla Jordan and Rothschild, 1921 contains nine species distributed throughout the Palaearctic, Ethiopian and Oriental Regions primarily on mollosid bats. A new species of bat flea, Araeopsylla goodmani, is described. This new species is represented by three females collected from one male specimen of the mollosid bat Chaerephon jobimena Goodman & Cardiff, 2004 from Fianarantsoa Province, Madagascar. A second new species, Araeopsylla smiti, is described from one male from the Rift Valley, Kenya. It was collected from the molossid bat Chaerephon bivittatus (Heuglin, 1861). This represents the first record of Araeopsylla in Kenya. Previous records of Araeopsylla in the Malagasy region included Araeopsylla martialis (Rothschild, 1903) from Reunion Island and Madagascar. One hundred fifty-eight specimens (64♂, 94♀) of Araeopsylla martialis were collected from 67 specimens (flea intensity of 2.4 fleas per host) of Mormopterus jugularis (Peters, 1865) across three provinces of Madagascar (Fianarantosa, Toamasina, and Toliara). Mormopterus jugularis is clearly a common host for Araeopsylla martialis. Dampfia grahami grahami (Waterston, 1915) is also reported from Eptesicus matroka (Thomas & Schwann, 1905) which is the first record from this host species and the first time the genus Dampfia has been documented in Madagascar. Although Lagaropsylla consularis Smit, 1957 and Lagaropsylla idae Smit, 1957 have been reported in Madagascar previously, Mops leucostigma Allen, 1918 is a new host record for Lagaropsylla idae. The flea intensity of Lagaropsylla idae (64♂, 83♀) on 28 specimens of Mops leucostigma was extremely high at 5.3 fleas per host. A key to the genus Araeopsylla is provided.
- Selective detection of a catecholamine against electroactive interferents using an interdigitated heteroarray electrode consisting of a metal oxide electrode and a metal band electrode. [Journal Article]
- ACAnal Chem 2005 Aug 15; 77(16):5236-42
- We developed an interdigitated array electrode (IDAE) consisting of a metal oxide electrode and a metal band heteroelectrode and employed it for the selective detection of catecholamines. We used an …
We developed an interdigitated array electrode (IDAE) consisting of a metal oxide electrode and a metal band heteroelectrode and employed it for the selective detection of catecholamines. We used an indium-tin oxide (ITO) film as the oxidation electrode of the IDAE because the ITO was able to suppress response currents from L-ascorbic acid (AA) and uric acid (UA), which are major electroactive interferents in biological fluids. However, the ITO film also suppresses the reduction of quinones including oxidized catecholamines. We developed a simple technique for fabricating our hetero IDAE, which also preserves the electrochemical properties of the ITO. When we compared hetero ITO-gold, homo ITO-ITO, and carbon-carbon IDAEs, we found that the hetero IDAE provided both high sensitivity and selectivity for DA detection. We achieved high selectivities for DA against AA and UA. The ratios of the response currents of AA and UA to DA were calculated as 6 and 5%, respectively.
- The persistence of Golgi complexes during cell division in an insect epidermis. [Journal Article]
- TCTissue Cell 1993; 25(5):709-23
- The Golgi complexes of animal cells are said to become vesicular during cell division in order to allow the equal partitioning of organelles between daughter cells (Warren, 1985). However, in the epi…
The Golgi complexes of animal cells are said to become vesicular during cell division in order to allow the equal partitioning of organelles between daughter cells (Warren, 1985). However, in the epidermis of fifth stage larval Calpodes ethlius (Lepidoptera, Hesperi idae), cutical deposition is concurrent with cell division in preparation for pupation. We therefore looked at the Golgi complexes of these epidermal cells to see if they maintained their interphase form to allow them to continue to function during cell division. Dividing cells were recognized by changes in the nucleus and nuclear envelope, the form of the cell cortex and cell surface, and by the disposition of microtubules. Epidermal Golgi complexes consist of 3-5 cisternae capped by endoplasmic reticulum with transfer vesicles and rings of GC beads next to the cis face, and secretory vesicles on the trans face. Golgi complexes of dividing cells are structurally indistinguishable from those in interphase, their beads are in the rings characteristic of active GCs, and cuticle continues in uninterrupted lamellae above the apical microvilli. The observations suggest that Golgi complexes in dividing insect cells differ from those of most vertebrates by remaining functional through mitosis.
- Effect of heparin on hemagglutination by pseudorabies virus. [Journal Article]
- AJAm J Vet Res 1993; 54(1):99-102
- Heparin inhibited hemagglutination (HA) by pseudorabies virus (PRV), but not HA by Akabane virus, bovine adenovirus type 7, Fukuoka virus, Getah virus, Japanese encephalitis virus, and parainfluenza …
Heparin inhibited hemagglutination (HA) by pseudorabies virus (PRV), but not HA by Akabane virus, bovine adenovirus type 7, Fukuoka virus, Getah virus, Japanese encephalitis virus, and parainfluenza virus type 3 belonging to the families Bunyaviridae, Adenoviridae, Rhabdoviridae, Togaviridae, Flavivi-idae, and Paramyxoviridae, respectively. The minimal inhibitory concentration of heparin required to inhibit 8 HA U of PRV ranged from 0.005 to 0.01 U/ml. Mouse erythrocytes failed to combine with the HA inhibitory factor of heparin. On the other hand, mouse erythrocytes treated with heparinase had greatly reduced agglutinability by PRV. Virus-heparin complex formation could be observed by sedimenting heparin with the virus particles.