- Brain volumetric correlates of dysarthria in multiple sclerosis. [Journal Article]
- BLBrain Lang 2019 May 15; 194:58-64
- Although dysarthria is a common pattern in multiple sclerosis (MS), the contribution of specific brain areas to key factors of dysarthria remains unknown. Speech data were acquired from 123 MS patien…
Although dysarthria is a common pattern in multiple sclerosis (MS), the contribution of specific brain areas to key factors of dysarthria remains unknown. Speech data were acquired from 123 MS patients with Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS) ranging from 1 to 6.5 and 60 matched healthy controls. Results of computerized acoustic analyses of subtests on spastic and ataxic aspects of dysarthria were correlated with MRI-based brain volume measurements. Slow articulation rate during reading was associated with bilateral white and grey matter loss whereas reduced maximum speed during oral diadochokinesis was related to greater cerebellar involvement. Articulation rate showed similar correlation to whole brain atrophy (r = 0.46, p < 0.001) as the standard clinical scales such as EDSS (r = -0.45, p < 0.001). Our results support the critical role of the pyramidal tract and cerebellum in the modification of motor speech timing in MS.
- Immune function testing in sepsis patients receiving sodium selenite. [Journal Article]
- JCJ Crit Care 2019 May 04; 52:208-212
- CONCLUSIONS: Selenium has long been an adjuvant therapy in treating sepsis. Recently, it was proven to not have beneficial effects on the mortality outcome. Using data from our center in this sub-cohort study, we identified no relative improvement in cytokine release of stimulated blood immune cells ex vivo from patients with selenium therapy over a three-week period. This offers a potential explanation for the lack of beneficial effects of selenium in sepsis patients.
- Vestibular rehabilitation in older adults with and without mild cognitive impairment: Effects of virtual reality using a head-mounted display. [Journal Article]
- AGArch Gerontol Geriatr 2019 May 10; 83:246-256
- CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrates that the implementation of a home-based virtual reality protocol may be a safe option in order to ameliorate VOR, postural control and the quality of life also in the vestibular impaired patients in whom the presence of cognitive decline could hinder the achievement of the goal of rehabilitation.
- Chromium-mediated hyperpigmentation of skin in male tannery workers in Bangladesh. [Journal Article]
- CChemosphere 2019 Apr 17; 229:611-617
- Since tannery workers in developing countries are chronically exposed to high levels of chromium (Cr), there are serious concerns about health problems. However, there has been limited study in which…
Since tannery workers in developing countries are chronically exposed to high levels of chromium (Cr), there are serious concerns about health problems. However, there has been limited study in which Cr levels were measured in tannery workers, who are chronically exposed to Cr. Our preliminary inspection showed that there was hyperpigmented skin in tannery workers. We therefore investigated the correlation between skin pigmentation levels digitally evaluated as L* values by using a reflectance spectrophotometer and Cr levels in skin appendages in 100 male tannery workers and in 49 male non-tannery workers in Bangladesh. Digitalized skin pigmentation levels of the face and feet in addition to Cr levels in hair and toenails in tannery workers were significantly higher than those in non-tannery workers in our univariate analysis. Spearman's rank correlation coefficient analysis showed significant correlation between duration of tannery work (years) and Cr levels in hair (r = 0.62) and toenails (r = 0.61). Our multivariate analysis also showed that Cr levels in hair and toenails were significantly correlated with digitalized skin pigmentation levels of the face and feet in addition to duration of tannery work in all participants. Thus, our results showed the development of hyperpigmented skin in tannery workers. Our results also suggested that hyperpigmented skin could be a useful diagnostic marker for chronic exposure to Cr. Furthermore, cutaneous L* value might be a convenient marker for detection of chronic Cr poisoning, since the digitalized values enable objective evaluation of skin pigmented levels by general people as well as dermatologists.
- Agro-ecological options for fall armyworm (Spodoptera frugiperda JE Smith) management: Providing low-cost, smallholder friendly solutions to an invasive pest. [Review]
- JEJ Environ Manage 2019 May 15; 243:318-330
- Fall armyworm (FAW), a voracious agricultural pest native to North and South America, was first detected on the African continent in 2016 and has subsequently spread throughout the continent and acro…
Fall armyworm (FAW), a voracious agricultural pest native to North and South America, was first detected on the African continent in 2016 and has subsequently spread throughout the continent and across Asia. It has been predicted that FAW could cause up to $US13 billion per annum in crop losses throughout sub-Saharan Africa, thereby threatening the livelihoods of millions of poor farmers. In their haste to respond to FAW governments may promote indiscriminate use of chemical pesticides which, aside from human health and environmental risks, could undermine smallholder pest management strategies that depend to a large degree on natural enemies. Agro-ecological approaches offer culturally appropriate low-cost pest control strategies that can be readily integrated into existing efforts to improve smallholder incomes and resilience through sustainable intensification. Such approaches should therefore be promoted as a core component of integrated pest management (IPM) programmes for FAW in combination with crop breeding for pest resistance, classical biological control and selective use of safe pesticides. Nonetheless, the suitability of agro-ecological measures for reducing FAW densities and impact need to be carefully assessed across varied environmental and socio-economic conditions before they can be proposed for wide-scale implementation. To support this process, we review evidence for the efficacy of potential agro-ecological measures for controlling FAW and other pests, consider the associated risks, and draw attention to critical knowledge gaps. The evidence indicates that several measures can be adopted immediately. These include (i) sustainable soil fertility management, especially measures that maintain or restore soil organic carbon; (ii) intercropping with appropriately selected companion plants; and (iii) diversifying the farm environment through management of (semi)natural habitats at multiple spatial scales. Nevertheless, we recommend embedding trials into upscaling programmes so that the costs and benefits of these interventions may be determined across the diverse biophysical and socio-economic contexts that are found in the invaded range.
- KGC3P attenuates ovalbumin-induced airway inflammation through downregulation of p-PTEN in asthmatic mice. [Journal Article]
- PPhytomedicine 2019 Apr 30; 62:152942
- CONCLUSIONS: KGC3P and nepetin are anti-asthmatic because they reduce various immune cells such as eosinophils and Th2 cell as well as Th2 cytokines. These mechanisms may be accompanied by the regulation of PPARγ expression and the PTEN pathway. Taken together, our results indicate that KGC3P and nepetin may potentially prevent and treat asthma.
- Evaluation and correction on quinones' quantification errors: Derived from the coexistence of different quinone species and pH-sensitive feature. [Journal Article]
- CChemosphere 2019 Apr 29; 230:67-75
- Quinones are becoming an essential tool for refractory organics treatment, while their quantification may be not well-considered. In this paper, two kinds of potential errors in quantification were e…
Quinones are becoming an essential tool for refractory organics treatment, while their quantification may be not well-considered. In this paper, two kinds of potential errors in quantification were evaluated in multiple pH conditions. They were derived from the coexistence of oxidized/reduced quinone species (Type I) and pH-sensitive feature (Type II), respectively. These errors would remarkably influence the accuracy of quantification while they haven't been emphasized. Thus, to elaborate the relationship between the two types of errors and the absorbance or pH conditions, three typical quinones [Anthraquinone-1-sulfonate (α-AQS), anthraquinone-2,6-disulfonate (AQDS) and lawsone] were selected and their acid dissociation coefficients (pKa) as well as UV-Vis spectra were determined. Results revealed that, for Type I, the relative error (RE) of α-AQS concentration would exceed the limit (5%) when reduced α-AQS was below 48% of total α-AQS. Similar results were found for lawsone. However, the RE can be eliminated by the equation established in this paper. For Type II, the pH-sensitive feature was related to the pKa values of quinones. Absorbances of α-AQS and lawsone would change remarkably with pH variation. Therefore, a model for correction was established. Analog data showed high consistency with experimental data [r = 0.995 (n = 25, p < 0.01) and r = 0.997 (n = 36, p < 0.01), for lawsone and α-AQS respectively]. Especially, the determination of AQDS concentrations was noticed to be pH-independent at 437 nm under pH 4.00 to 9.18 conditions. Based on these features, a comprehensive data solution was proposed for handling these errors.
- Probing the effects of different lead compounds on the bioavailability of lead to plants. [Journal Article]
- CChemosphere 2019 Apr 20; 230:24-28
- Lead (Pb) is an important pollutant and is released into the environment in many forms. Different lead compounds have a variety of solubilities and so may impact on lead bioavailability and toxicity …
Lead (Pb) is an important pollutant and is released into the environment in many forms. Different lead compounds have a variety of solubilities and so may impact on lead bioavailability and toxicity when added to soil. In this experimental study, we investigated the bioavailability of Pb in soil spiked with 300, 900 and 1500 mg/kg of Pb-acetate, PbCl2 and PbO using lettuce and wallaby grass. The concentration of Pb in the shoots of both species from control soils (2-3 mg/kg) was similar to previously reported concentrations in plants grown on uncontaminated soils. The Pb concentrations in the plant shoots increased with Pb concentrations in soil for lettuce (R2 = 0.526, P < 0.001) and wallaby grass (R2 = 0.776, P < 0.001). This study demonstrated that Pb bioavailability in soil was not affected by the type of Pb compound added to the soil for both plant species up to 1500 mg/kg Pb concentrations. Instead, the Pb concentration in the plant was best predicted by the total concentration of lead in the soil, irrespective of the original lead compound added to the soil. This research suggests that the original Pb compounds that contaminated the soil are unlikely to be an important factor in assessing Pb bioavailability, and hence risk, in soils.
- Apparent synonymous mutation F9 c.87A>G causes secretion failure by in-frame mutation with aberrant splicing. [Journal Article]
- TRThromb Res 2019 May 01; 179:95-103
- CONCLUSIONS: F9 c.87A>G was found to cause abnormal mRNA splicing, r.83_88del, and produce the mutant FIX p.Cys28_Val30delinsPhe. The mutant FIX is an abnormal protein with extracellular secretory defects and is intracellularly eliminated via proteasome-dependent ER-associated degradation.
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- Surface nanobubbles on the rare earth fluorcarbonate mineral synchysite. [Journal Article]
- JCJ Colloid Interface Sci 2019 May 06; 552:66-71
- Surface nanobubbles have been identified to play an important role in a range of industries from mineral processing to food science. The formation of surface nanobubbles is of importance for mineral …
Surface nanobubbles have been identified to play an important role in a range of industries from mineral processing to food science. The formation of surface nanobubbles is of importance for mineral processing in the extraction of complex ores, such as those containing rare earth elements. This is due to the way minerals are extracted utilising froth flotation. In this study, surface nanobubbles were imaged using non-contact atomic force microscopy on a polished cross section containing rare earth minerals. Nanobubbles were found on synchysite under reagent conditions expected to induce hydrophobicity in rare earth minerals, which is required for efficient processing. Synchysite -(Ce) is a rare earth fluorcarbonate mineral containing over 30% rare earth elements. Relatively little research has been conducted on synchysite, with only a few papers on its surface behaviour and flotation. The resulting nanobubbles were analysed and showed an average contact angle of 24° ± 8. These are in line with contact angles found on dolomite and galena by previous studies.