- Interim analysis of a 3-year follow-up study of NS5A and NS3 resistance-associated substitutions after treatment with grazoprevir-containing regimens in participants with chronic HCV infection. [Journal Article]
- ATAntivir Ther 2018; 23(7):593-603
- CONCLUSIONS: Treatment-emergent NS5A RASs can persist for extended periods of time. Retreatment strategies should take account of the presence of these RASs.
- ATMOSPHERIC PARTICULATE AND XENON RADIOISOTOPES MONITORING OVER CANADA AND HEALTH IMPACT ESTIMATION BEFORE AND AFTER THE FUKUSHIMA NUCLEAR ACCIDENT. [Journal Article]
- RPRadiat Prot Dosimetry 2018 Apr 01; 179(2):136-141
- This article presents the results of atmospheric radioactivity monitoring obtained by three Canadian radiation monitoring stations before, after and during Fukushima-Daiichi accident. It includes 210…
This article presents the results of atmospheric radioactivity monitoring obtained by three Canadian radiation monitoring stations before, after and during Fukushima-Daiichi accident. It includes 210Pb, 212Pb and 7Be (naturally occurring radionuclides) and 131I, 132I, 129Te, 129mTe, 132Te, 134Cs, 136Cs, 137Cs and 133Xe (Fukushima contaminants). The maximum activity concentrations were in range of 2.3-3.7 Bq/m3 for 133Xe; 2.0-4.4 mBq/m3 for 131I in aerosol form; 0.27-0.83 mBq/m3 for 137Cs depending on monitoring locations. The effective inhalation and cloudshine dose due to the Fukushima contaminants for an adult was estimated in range of 0.8-1.1 × 10-4 mSv, out of which the proportions of 133Xe and 131I were in range of 64-83% and 15-33%, respectively. During this period, the dose resulting from exposure to naturally occurring radionuclides was estimated in range of 0.60-1.8 × 10-3 mSv, one order of magnitude higher than those of the Fukushima contaminants. The dose impact from exposure to the Fukushima contaminants was negligible.
- Reconstruction of radiation doses in a case-control study of thyroid cancer following the Chernobyl accident. [Journal Article]
- HPHealth Phys 2010; 99(1):1-16
- A population-based case-control study of thyroid cancer was carried out in contaminated regions of Belarus and Russia among persons who were exposed during childhood and adolescence to fallout from t…
A population-based case-control study of thyroid cancer was carried out in contaminated regions of Belarus and Russia among persons who were exposed during childhood and adolescence to fallout from the Chernobyl accident. For each study subject, individual thyroid doses were reconstructed for the following pathways of exposure: (1) intake of 131I via inhalation and ingestion; (2) intake of short-lived radioiodines (132I, 133I, and 135I) and radiotelluriums (131mTe, 132Te) via inhalation and ingestion; (3) external dose from radionuclides deposited on the ground; and (4) ingestion of 134Cs and 137Cs. A series of intercomparison exercises validated the models used for reconstruction of average doses to populations of specific age groups as well as of individual doses. Median thyroid doses from all factors for study subjects were estimated to be 0.37 and 0.034 Gy in Belarus and Russia, respectively. The highest individual thyroid doses among the subjects were 10.2 Gy in Belarus and 5.3 Gy in Russia. Iodine-131 intake was the main pathway for thyroid exposure. Estimated doses from short-lived radioiodines and radiotelluriums ranged up to 0.53 Gy. Reconstructed individual thyroid doses from external exposure ranged up to 0.1 Gy, while those from internal exposure due to ingested cesium did not exceed 0.05 Gy. The uncertainty of the reconstructed individual thyroid doses, characterized by the geometric standard deviation, varies from 1.7 to 4.0 with a median of 2.2.
- Reconstruction of individual radiation doses for a case-control study of thyroid cancer in French Polynesia. [Journal Article]
- HPHealth Phys 2008; 94(5):418-33
- Forty-one atmospheric nuclear weapons tests (plus five safety tests) were conducted in French Polynesia between 1966 and 1974. To evaluate the potential role of atmospheric nuclear weapons testing on…
Forty-one atmospheric nuclear weapons tests (plus five safety tests) were conducted in French Polynesia between 1966 and 1974. To evaluate the potential role of atmospheric nuclear weapons testing on a high incidence of thyroid cancer observed since 1985 in French Polynesia, a population-based case-control study was performed. The study included 602 subjects, either cases or controls, all aged less than 40 y at the end of nuclear weapons testing in 1974. Radiation doses to the thyroids of the study subjects were assessed based on the available historical results of radiation measurements. These were mainly found in the annual reports on the radiological situation in French Polynesia that had been sent to the UNSCEAR Secretariat. For each atmospheric nuclear weapons test that contributed substantially to the local deposition of radionuclides, the radiation dose to the thyroid from I intake was estimated. In addition, thyroid doses from the intake of short-lived radioiodines (132I, 133I, 135I) and 132Te, external exposure from gamma-emitted radionuclides deposited on the ground, and ingestion of long-lived Cs were reconstructed. The mean thyroid dose among the study subjects was found to be around 3 mGy while the highest dose was estimated to be around 40 mGy. Doses from short-lived iodine and tellurium isotopes ranged up to 10 mGy. Thyroid doses from external exposure ranged up to 3 mGy, while those from internal exposure due to cesium ingestion did not exceed 1 mGy. The dose estimates that have been obtained are based on a rather limited number of radiation measurements performed on a limited number of islands and are highly uncertain. A thorough compilation of the results of all radiation monitoring that was performed in French Polynesia in 1966-1974 would be likely to greatly improve the reliability and the precision of the dose estimates.
- Crystallographic location and mutational analysis of Zn and Cd inhibitory sites and role of lipidic carboxylates in rescuing proton path mutants in cytochrome c oxidase. [Journal Article]
- BBiochemistry 2007 May 29; 46(21):6239-48
- Cytochrome c oxidase (CcO) transfers protons from the inner surface of the enzyme to the buried O2 reduction site through two different pathways, termed K and D, and from the outer surface via an und…
Cytochrome c oxidase (CcO) transfers protons from the inner surface of the enzyme to the buried O2 reduction site through two different pathways, termed K and D, and from the outer surface via an undefined route. These proton paths can be inhibited by metals such as zinc or cadmium, but the sites of inhibition have not been established. Anomalous difference Fourier analyses of Rhodobacter sphaeroides CcO crystals, with cadmium added, reveal metal binding sites that include the proposed initial proton donor/acceptor of the K pathway, Glu-101 of subunit II. Mutant forms of CcO that lack Glu-101II (E101A and E101A/H96A) exhibit low activity and eliminate metal binding at this site. Significant activity is restored to E101A and E101A/H96A by adding the lipophilic carboxylic compounds, arachidonic acid and cholic acid, but not by their non-carboxylic analogues. These amphipathic acids likely provide their carboxylic groups as substitute proton donors/acceptors in the absence of Glu-101II, as previously observed for arachidonic acid in mutants that alter Asp-132I of the D pathway. The activity of E101A/H96A is still inhibited by zinc, but this remaining inhibition is nearly eliminated by removal of subunit III, which is known to alter the D pathway. The results identify the Glu-101/His-96 site of subunit II as the site of metal binding that inhibits the uptake of protons into the K pathway and indicate that subunit III contributes to zinc binding and/or inhibition of the D pathway. By removing subunit III from E101A/H96A, thereby eliminating zinc inhibition of the uptake of protons from the inner surface of CcO, we confirm that an external zinc binding site is involved in inhibiting the backflow of protons to the active site.
- Individual thyroid dose estimates for a case-control study of chernobyl-related thyroid cancer among children of Belarus--part II. Contributions from long-lived radionuclides and external radiation. [Journal Article]
- HPHealth Phys 2006; 90(4):312-27
- Significant quantities of long-lived radionuclides were released to the environment during the Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident in 1986. These radionuclides contributed to radiation doses due t…
Significant quantities of long-lived radionuclides were released to the environment during the Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident in 1986. These radionuclides contributed to radiation doses due to ingestion of contaminated foods and external exposure from the ground deposition that resulted. The contributions of these exposure pathways to thyroid doses received by subjects of an epidemiologic study of children from Belarus are evaluated and presented. The analysis shows that ingestion of the long-lived radionuclides, primarily radiocesium, typically contributed a small percentage of the total thyroid dose received by the study subjects. The median and mean fractional contributions were 0.76 and 0.95%, respectively. The contribution of external exposure to the thyroid dose was generally larger and more variable, with median and mean contributions of 1.2 and 1.8% of the total thyroid doses, respectively. For regions close to the reactor site, where radionuclide deposition was highest, the contributions of radiocesium ingestion and external exposure were generally lower than those of the short-lived radioiodine isotopes (132I and 133I) and their precursors (132Te). In other areas, the contributions of these two pathways were comparable to those of the short-lived radioiodines. For all subjects, intakes of 131I were the primary source of dose to the thyroid.
- Individual thyroid dose estimation for a case-control study of Chernobyl-related thyroid cancer among children of Belarus-part I: 131I, short-lived radioiodines (132I, 133I, 135I), and short-lived radiotelluriums (131MTe and 132Te). [Controlled Clinical Trial]
- HPHealth Phys 2004; 86(6):565-85
- Large amounts of radioiodines were released into the atmosphere during the accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant on 26 April 1986. In order to investigate whether the thyroid cancers observed…
Large amounts of radioiodines were released into the atmosphere during the accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant on 26 April 1986. In order to investigate whether the thyroid cancers observed among children in Belarus could have been caused by radiation exposures from the Chernobyl accident, a team of Belarusian, Russian, and American scientists conducted a case-control study to compare cases and controls according to estimated thyroid dose. The primary purpose of this paper is to present detailed information on the estimated thyroid doses, due to intakes of 131I, that were used in the case-control study. The range of the 131I thyroid doses among the 107 cases and the 214 controls was found to extend from 0.00002 to 4.3 Gy, with medians of approximately 0.2 Gy for the cases and 0.07 Gy for the controls. In addition, the thyroid doses resulting from the intakes of short-lived radioiodines (132I, 133I, and 135I) and radiotelluriums (131mTe and 132Te) were estimated and compared to the doses from 131I. The ratios of the estimated thyroid doses from the short-lived radionuclides and from I for the cases and the controls range from 0.003 to 0.1, with median values of approximately 0.02 for both cases and controls.
- Contributions of short-lived radioiodines to thyroid doses received by evacuees from the Chernobyl area estimated using early in vivo activity measurements. [Journal Article]
- RPRadiat Prot Dosimetry 2003; 105(1-4):593-9
- A series of in vivo gamma spectrometric measurements of 65 people evacuated from Pripyat 1.5 days after the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant Unit 4 explosion was performed in St Petersburg, Russia, as e…
A series of in vivo gamma spectrometric measurements of 65 people evacuated from Pripyat 1.5 days after the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant Unit 4 explosion was performed in St Petersburg, Russia, as early as 30 April 1986. The historical spectra and interviews were recently processed and the results used for thyroid dose estimation. Activities of 131I in thyroid and 132Te in lungs were determined easily; for estimation of 132I and 133I activities in thyroid, sophisticated methods of spectral processing were developed. According to thyroid measurement data, the mean ratio of 133I/131I activities (at the time of the accident) inhaled by residents of Pripyat was 2.0. The mean ratio of thyroid dose from 133I inhalation to that caused by 131I amounts to 0.3, which confirms the accuracy of dose estimates based on the evolution of the Chernobyl accident. The mean ratio of 132I activity in thyroid to that of 132Te in lungs was assessed from the human measurement data to be 0.2, which is in reasonable agreement with the metabolic properties of these radionuclides. The mean ratio of thyroid dose from 132I originating from 132Te deposited in lungs to the dose caused by 131I was 0.13 +/- 0.02 for Pripyat residents who did not take KI pills and 0.9 +/- 0.1 for persons who took KI pills. Thus, the contribution of short-lived radioiodines to total thyroid dose of Pripyat residents, which was on average 30% for persons who did not use stable iodine prophylaxis, and about 50% for persons who took KI pills on 26-27 April, should be accounted for in the assessment of thyroid health effects.
- An iterative approach for TRIGA fuel burn-up determination using nondestructive gamma-ray spectrometry. [Journal Article]
- ARAppl Radiat Isot 2000; 52(1):105-18
- The purpose of this work is to establish a method for evaluating the burn-up values of the rod-type TRIGA spent fuel by using gamma-ray spectrometry of the short-lived fission products 97Zr/97Nb, 132…
The purpose of this work is to establish a method for evaluating the burn-up values of the rod-type TRIGA spent fuel by using gamma-ray spectrometry of the short-lived fission products 97Zr/97Nb, 132I, and 140La. Fuel irradiation history is not needed in this method. Short-lived fission-product activities were established by reirradiating the spent fuels in a nuclear reactor. Based on the measured activities, 235U burn-up values can be deduced by iterative calculations. The complication caused by 239Pu production and fission is also discussed in detail. The burn-up values obtained by this method are in good agreement with those deduced from the conventional method based on long-lived fission products 137Cs, 134Cs/137Cs ratio and 106Ru/137Cs ratio.
New Search Next
- Age-dependent thyroid absorbed doses for radiobiologically significant radioisotopes of iodine. [Journal Article]
- HPHealth Phys 2000; 78(1):60-7
- In light of the post-Chernobyl increase in pediatric thyroid cancer incidence, among other recent events, there is renewed interest in radioiodine thyroid dosimetry and effects. Among the radioiodine…
In light of the post-Chernobyl increase in pediatric thyroid cancer incidence, among other recent events, there is renewed interest in radioiodine thyroid dosimetry and effects. Among the radioiodines produced in fission of 235U, only 131I [(T1/2)p = 8.04 d], 132I (2.3 h), 133I (20.3 h), and 135I (6.7 h) may undergo significant environmental dispersion. Age-dependent thyroid absorbed dose estimates for these radiobiologically significant radioiodines and for the "medical" radioisotopes 123I (13.2 h) and 125I (60 d) have been derived, incorporating the effect of absorption following inhalation or ingestion. This effect has generally been ignored in previously derived estimates of radioiodine absorbed doses to the thyroid. Based on the latest ICRP lung and gut models, inhaled radioiodine is absorbed at a rate of 0.175 h(-1) and exhaled at 0.101 to 0.118 h(-1) (depending on age) and ingested radioiodine is completely absorbed in the stomach at a rate of 1 h(-1). Whole-body compartmental models (SAAM II) were fit to previously published 24-h thyroid uptakes, thyroid half-times, and 48-h plasma concentration of protein-bound iodine. The resulting fitted models were used to calculate thyroid residence times of radioiodine. The mean thyroid absorbed doses [cGy/37 kBq (rad/microCi) injected intravenously] were then calculated using the age-dependent S(thyroid<--thyroid) factors (MIRDOSE III), with the highest doses (from 0.49 for 123I to 36 for 131I) in newborns and the lowest doses (from 0.014 for 123I to 1.4 for 131I) in adults in inverse relation to the thyroid mass. Although the thyroid absorbed dose for inhalation is substantially (30 to 70%) less than that for injection for all radioiodines and at all ages, it is markedly (25%) less for ingestion only for short-lived 132I.