- Questing Ixodes ricinus ticks (Acari, Ixodidae) as a vector of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato and Borrelia miyamotoi in an urban area of north-eastern Poland. [Journal Article]
- EAExp Appl Acarol 2019 May 17
- Green areas located within large cities, as natural ecotypes, are a convenient habitat for ticks and their use as recreational areas is associated with the potential risk of acquiring tick-borne dise…
Green areas located within large cities, as natural ecotypes, are a convenient habitat for ticks and their use as recreational areas is associated with the potential risk of acquiring tick-borne diseases. This study estimated the I. ricinus tick density, prevalence of infection with Borrelia species and the diversity of these bacteria in a green urban area (Olsztyn) of north-eastern Poland, an endemic region of tick-borne diseases. The ticks were collected during spring and autumn of 2015, at sites differing in the degree of human pressure and habitat. Borrelia species detection, typing and a molecular phylogenetic analysis were carried out based on the sequenced flaB gene. The overall mean abundance of I. ricinus was 2.0 ± 1.55 ticks per 100 m2. The density of I. ricinus did not vary significantly between sites. According to semi-qualitative tick abundance categories, the collection sites were classified as 'very low' and 'low' tick abundance category. The overall infection rate of I. ricinus with Borrelia spirochaetes was 27.4%. The infection rate of adult ticks (42.0%) was three times higher than with nymphs (14.3%). Based on the restriction patterns and sequencing, B. afzelii (93.1%; 27/29), B. valaisiana 3.5% (1/29) and B. miyamotoi (3.5%; 1/29), related to the relapsing fever (RF) spirochaetes, were detected. No co-infections were found. Borrelia miyamotoi, detected for the first time in ticks in the north-eastern urban areas of Poland, was identical to isolates described as European-type. The Borrelia spirochaete infection rate of I. ricinus ticks in an urban area indicated a high risk of LB. Physicians should also be aware of B. miyamotoi infections among patients with a history of tick-bites in north-eastern Poland.
- Stanniocalcin-1 and -2 effects on glucose and lipid metabolism in white adipose tissue from fed and fasted rats. [Journal Article]
- CJCan J Physiol Pharmacol 2019 May 17
- Stanniocalcin-1 and -2 belong to a family of molecules that exhibit both paracrine and autocrine effects in mammalian cells. Human stanniocalcin-1 (hSTC-1) is expressed in a wide range of tissues, in…
Stanniocalcin-1 and -2 belong to a family of molecules that exhibit both paracrine and autocrine effects in mammalian cells. Human stanniocalcin-1 (hSTC-1) is expressed in a wide range of tissues, including white adipose tissue. In fed rats, hSTC-1 increases carbon flux from glucose to lipids in retroperitoneal white adipose tissue. Human stanniocalcin-2 (hSTC-2) is expressed in almost all tissues and regulates various biological processes. The aim of this work was to study the action of hSTC-1 and hSTC-2 in the lipid and glucose metabolism of epididymal white adipose tissue (eWAT) in rats in different nutritional states. This study shows for the first time an opposite effect of hSTC-1 and hSTC-2 on glyceride-glycerol generation from glucose in eWAT of fed rats. hSTC-1 stimulated the storage of triacylglycerol (TAG) in eWAT in the postprandial period, increasing glucose uptake and glyceride-glycerol generation from 14C-glucose. hSTC-2 decreased TAG synthesis, reducing glyceride-glycerol generation from 14C-glucose, direct phosphorylation of glycerol and fatty acid synthesis from 14C-glucose in eWAT of fed rats. However, both hormones increased glucose uptake in fed and fasting states. These findings provide evidence for a direct role of hSTC-1 and hSTC-2 in the regulation of lipid and glucose metabolism in eWAT of rats.
- A combined LX-NMR and molecular dynamics investigation of the bulk and local structure of ionic liquid crystals. [Journal Article]
- SMSoft Matter 2019 May 16
- The unique power of NMR spectroscopy in anisotropic media (LX-NMR) as a tool to obtain local and bulk structural information, combined with the effectiveness of molecular dynamics simulations at the …
The unique power of NMR spectroscopy in anisotropic media (LX-NMR) as a tool to obtain local and bulk structural information, combined with the effectiveness of molecular dynamics simulations at the atomistic level, shows very attractive potentialities for the study of interesting, even though still poorly understood, materials such as Ionic Liquid Crystals (ILCs). In this work, we focused our attention, in particular, on the orientational ordering of two mesophases: 1-dodecyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride, [C12C1im]Cl, and 1-dodecyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate, [C12C1im][BF4]. Both ILCs were studied by a 2H NMR direct investigation of the molecules forming the phases, suitably deuterated, and by 1H NMR spectroscopy, using the small rigid probe-solutes 1,4-dichlorobenzene (DCB), dissolved in [C12C1im][BF4] and [C12C1im]Cl, and 1,4-dibromobenzene (DBB) dissolved in [C12C1im][BF4], to probe the local, internal structure and organization of the mesophases. The experimental results were then compared with the predictions, by atomistic MD simulations, of the structure of the smectic phase of the two salts, at two selected temperatures, containing a single DCB molecule as a probe. The MD simulations show that the DCB solute is distributed only within the hydrophobic layers of the ILC. Orientational order parameters of the imidazolium cations and of the DCB molecule were obtained and compared with the experiments, showing a general good agreement and allowing a deeper understanding of the microscopic structure of the systems.
- [Effect of Soil Moisture and Temperature on the Soil Inorganic Carbon Release of Brown Limestone Soil in the Karst Region of Southwestern China]. [Journal Article]
- HJHuan Jing Ke Xue 2019 Apr 08; 40(4):1965-1972
- In order to understand the influence of environmental factors on the carbonate conversion of the Karst soil, typical brown limestone and red soil samples were collected from the Karst ecosystem, and …
In order to understand the influence of environmental factors on the carbonate conversion of the Karst soil, typical brown limestone and red soil samples were collected from the Karst ecosystem, and a 100-day incubation experiment was conducted. The characteristics of inorganic carbon release from the soil under three temperature gradients (15, 25, and 35℃) and water contents (30%, 65%, and 100% WHC) were studied by adding 14C-CaCO3 for 100 d. The results showed that under the different soil moisture and temperature conditions, the maximum rate and the cumulative amount of inorganic carbon release from the soil over 100 days varied between 0.7-16.8 mg·(kg·d)-1and 5.9-29.4 mg·kg-1, respectively, in the brown limestone soil, and varied between 39.7-103.3 mg·(kg·d)-1 and 83.3-135.1 mg·kg-1, respectively in the red soil. Under drought conditions (30% WHC), the cumulative amount of inorganic carbon release was the highest for the two soils and increased with increasing temperature. At 65% WHC and 100% WHC, increasing temperature can still promote inorganic carbon release from the soil. The temperature sensitivity of the soil inorganic carbon release in the brown limestone soil is greater than that of the red soil, which is significantly affected by soil moisture. The soil pH and MBC content were remarkably increased after adding CaCO3, and the difference between the two soils was significant. The variance partition showed that temperature and soil moisture can explain 7.6% and 2.0% of the soil inorganic carbon release variability, respectively. In conclusion, warming and drought aggravate inorganic carbon release from brown limestone soil in the southwestern Karst region. Therefore, in the context of global warming and more frequent extreme precipitation events, the effects of soil moisture and temperature on inorganic carbon conversion in soil should be fully considered when studying the soil carbon cycle and its dynamic changes in southwestern Karst. This research can provide a scientific basis for further understanding the influence of climate change on the global carbon cycle.
- 87Sr/86Sr and 14C evidence for peccary (Tayassuidae) introduction challenges accepted historical interpretation of the 1657 Ligon map of Barbados. [Journal Article]
- PlosPLoS One 2019; 14(5):e0216458
- Contemporary West Indian biodiversity has been shaped by two millennia of non-native species introductions. Understanding the dynamics of this process and its legacy across extended temporal and spat…
Contemporary West Indian biodiversity has been shaped by two millennia of non-native species introductions. Understanding the dynamics of this process and its legacy across extended temporal and spatial scales requires accurate knowledge of introduction timing and the species involved. Richard Ligon's 17th century account and celebrated map of early colonial Barbados records the translocation of several Old World species to the island in the post-contact era, including pigs (Sus scrofa) believed to have been released by passing sailors the century prior. Here we challenge this long-accepted historical narrative, presenting evidence that Ligon's "pigs" were in fact peccaries, a New World continental mammal often confused with wild boars. We document the first recorded instance of non-native peccary (Tayassuidae) on Barbados based on a securely identified mandibular specimen from a historic archaeological context. Results of specimen 87Sr/86Sr and AMS radiocarbon assays, along with newly reported data from Sr isotope environmental analyses, indicate a local origin dating to AD 1645-1670/1780-1800. These data support the presence of living peccary on Barbados some time during the first 175 years of English settlement, which, based on review of historical and archaeological data, most likely arises from 16th century peccary introduction from the Guianas/Trinidad by the Spanish or Portuguese. We argue dimorphic representations of "pigs" on Ligon's map reflect the co-occurrence of peccary and European domestic swine on historic Barbados. Our findings overturn conventional history and provide greater taxonomic and chronological resolution for Caribbean bioinvasion studies, helping to refine our understanding of potential ecological impacts. In addition, the new bioavailable 87Sr/86Sr data for Barbados reported here advance current efforts toward mapping the Caribbean Sr isoscape.
- 14C-Free Carbon Is a Major Contributor to Cellular Biomass in Geochemically Distinct Groundwater of Shallow Sedimentary Bedrock Aquifers. [Journal Article]
- WRWater Resour Res 2019; 55(3):2104-2121
- Despite the global significance of the subsurface biosphere, the degree to which it depends on surface organic carbon (OC) is still poorly understood. Here, we compare stable and radiogenic carbon is…
Despite the global significance of the subsurface biosphere, the degree to which it depends on surface organic carbon (OC) is still poorly understood. Here, we compare stable and radiogenic carbon isotope compositions of microbial phospholipid fatty acids (PLFAs) with those of in situ potential microbial C sources to assess the major C sources for subsurface microorganisms in biogeochemical distinct shallow aquifers (Critical Zone Exploratory, Thuringia Germany). Despite the presence of younger OC, the microbes assimilated 14C-free OC to varying degrees; ~31% in groundwater within the oxic zone, ~47% in an iron reduction zone, and ~70% in a sulfate reduction/anammox zone. The persistence of trace amounts of mature and partially biodegraded hydrocarbons suggested that autochthonous petroleum-derived hydrocarbons were a potential 14C-free C source for heterotrophs in the oxic zone. In this zone, Δ14C values of dissolved inorganic carbon (-366 ± 18‰) and 11MeC16:0 (-283 ± 32‰), an important component in autotrophic nitrite oxidizers, were similar enough to indicate that autotrophy is an important additional C fixation pathway. In anoxic zones, methane as an important C source was unlikely since the 13C-fractionations between the PLFAs and CH4 were inconsistent with kinetic isotope effects associated with methanotrophy. In the sulfate reduction/anammox zone, the strong 14C-depletion of 10MeC16:0 (-942 ± 22‰), a PLFA common in sulfate reducers, indicated that those bacteria were likely to play a critical part in 14C-free sedimentary OC cycling. Results indicated that the 14C-content of microbial biomass in shallow sedimentary aquifers results from complex interactions between abundance and bioavailability of naturally occurring OC, hydrogeology, and specific microbial metabolisms.
- A single-center, open-label study investigating the excretion balance, pharmacokinetics, metabolism, and absolute bioavailability of a single oral dose of [14C]-labeled idasanutlin and an intravenous tracer dose of [13C]-labeled idasanutlin in a single cohort of patients with solid tumors. [Journal Article]
- CCCancer Chemother Pharmacol 2019 May 06
- CONCLUSIONS: The clinical implications of this study support the conclusion that renal impairment is unlikely to significantly impact exposure to idasanutlin and M4 metabolite, whereas a significant hepatic impairment may potentially alter exposure to the parent drug and/or metabolite(s). The potential for drug-drug interactions is low.
- Preserved Cerebral Oxygen Metabolism in Astrocytic Dysfunction: A Combination Study of 15O-Gas PET with 14C-Acetate Autoradiography. [Journal Article]
- BSBrain Sci 2019 May 03; 9(5)
- Fluorocitrate (FC) is a specific metabolic inhibitor of the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle in astrocytes. The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether inhibition of the astrocyte TCA cycle by FC…
Fluorocitrate (FC) is a specific metabolic inhibitor of the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle in astrocytes. The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether inhibition of the astrocyte TCA cycle by FC would affect the oxygen metabolism in the rat brain. At 4 h after the intracranial FC injection, the rats (n = 9) were investigated by 15O-labeled gas PET to measure the cerebral blood flow (CBF), the cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen (CMRO2), oxygen extraction fraction (OEF), and cerebral blood volume (CBV). After the 15O-gas PET, the rats were given an intravenous injection of 14C-acetate for autoradiography. 15O-gas PET showed no significant differences in any of the measured parameters between the ipsilateral and contralateral striatum (high dose group: CBF (54.4 ± 8.8 and 55.3 ± 11.6 mL/100mL/min), CMRO2 (7.0 ± 0.9 and 7.1 ± 1.2 mL/100mL/min), OEF (72.0 ± 8.9 and 70.8 ± 8.2%), and CBV (4.1 ± 0.8 and 4.2 ± 0.9 mL/100mL), respectively). In contrast, the 14C-acetate autoradiography revealed a significant inhibition of the astrocyte metabolism in the ipsilateral striatum. The regional cerebral oxygen consumption as well as the hemodynamic parameters were maintained even in the face of inhibition of the astrocyte TCA cycle metabolism in the rat brain.
- Shorter interval and multiple flooding-drying cycling enhanced the mineralization of 14C-DDT in a paddy soil. [Journal Article]
- STSci Total Environ 2019 Aug 01; 676:420-428
- DDT and its main metabolites (DDTs) are still the residual contaminants in soil. Sequential anaerobic-aerobic cycling has long been approved for enhancing the degradation of DDTs in soil. However, th…
DDT and its main metabolites (DDTs) are still the residual contaminants in soil. Sequential anaerobic-aerobic cycling has long been approved for enhancing the degradation of DDTs in soil. However, there is a lack of study investigating whether anaerobic-aerobic cycling would enhance the mineralization of DDT, and what a kind of anaerobic-aerobic management regimes would be optimal. To fill these gaps, the fate of 14C-DDT under different flooding-drying cycles was examined in a paddy soil by monitoring its mineralization and bioavailability. The results show the total mineralization of 14C-DDT in 314 days accounted for 1.01%, 1.30%, and 1.41%, individually for the treatments subjected to one, two, and three flooding-drying cycles. By comparison, the treatment subjected to the permanently aerobic phase had only 0.12% cumulative mineralization. Shorter intervals and multiple flooding-drying cycles enhanced the mineralization of 14C-DDT, however, reduced its bioavailability. Therefore, the enhanced mineralization was explained from an abiotic pathway as predicted by the one-electron reduction potential (E1), the Fukui function for nucleophilic attack (f+) and the steps for anaerobic decarboxylation. From a practical view, it is important to investigate how the anaerobic-aerobic interval and frequency would affect the degradation and mineralization of DDT, which is very essential in developing remediation strategies.
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- Protein Acetylation in Pathogen Virulence and Host Defense: In Vitro Detection of Protein Acetylation by Radiolabeled Acetyl Coenzyme A. [Journal Article]
- MMMethods Mol Biol 2019; 1991:23-32
- Protein acetylation has emerged as a common modification that modulates multiple aspects of protein function, including localization, stability, and protein-protein interactions. It is increasingly e…
Protein acetylation has emerged as a common modification that modulates multiple aspects of protein function, including localization, stability, and protein-protein interactions. It is increasingly evident that protein acetylation significantly impacts the outcome of host-microbe interactions. In order to characterize novel putative acetyltransferase enzymes and their substrates, we describe a simple protocol for the detection of acetyltransferase activity in vitro. Purified proteins are incubated with 14C-acetyl CoA and separated electrophoretically, and acetylated proteins are detected by phosphorimaging or autoradiography.