- Interactions of phenethylamine-derived psychoactive substances of the 2C-series with human monoamine oxidases. [Journal Article]
- DTDrug Test Anal 2019; 11(2):318-324
- Psychoactive substances of the 2C-series (2Cs) are phenethylamine-derived designer drugs that can induce psychostimulant and hallucinogenic effects. Chemically, the classic 2Cs contain two methoxy gr…
Psychoactive substances of the 2C-series (2Cs) are phenethylamine-derived designer drugs that can induce psychostimulant and hallucinogenic effects. Chemically, the classic 2Cs contain two methoxy groups in positions 2 and 5 of the phenyl ring, whereas substances of the so-called FLY series contain rigidified methoxy groups integrated in a 2,3,6,7-tetrahydrobenzo[1,2-b:4,5-b']difuran core. One of the pharmacological features that has not been investigated in detail is the inhibition of monoamine oxidase (MAO). Inhibition of this enzyme can cause elevated monoamine levels that have been associated with adverse events such as agitation, nausea, vomiting, tachycardia, hypertension, or seizures. The aim of this study was to extend the knowledge surrounding the potential of MAO inhibition for 17 test drugs, which consisted of 12 2Cs (2C-B, 2C-D, 2C-E, 2C-H, 2C-I, 2C-N, 2C-P, 2C-T-2, 2C-T-7, 2C-T-21, bk-2C-B, and bk-2C-I) and five FLY analogs (2C-B-FLY, 2C-E-FLY, 2C-EF-FLY, 2C-I-FLY, and 2C-T-7-FLY). The extent of MAO inhibition was assessed using an established in vitro procedure based on heterologously expressed enzymes and analysis by hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography-high resolution tandem mass spectrometry. Thirteen test drugs showed inhibition potential for MAO-A and 11 showed inhibition of MAO-B. In cases where MAO-A IC50 values were determined, values ranged from 10 to 125 μM (7 drugs) and from 1.7 to 180 μM for MAO-B (9 drugs). In the absence of detailed clinical information on most test drugs, it is concluded that a pharmacological contribution of MAO inhibition cannot be excluded and that further studies are warranted.
- A Validated Method for the Detection of 32 Bath Salts in Oral Fluid. [Journal Article]
- JAJ Anal Toxicol 2017 Oct 01; 41(8):659-669
- Workplace drug testing in Australia is usually adherent to one of two standards, AS/NZS 4308:2008 for urine or AS 4760:2006 for oral fluid. These standards prescribe the drugs tested, devices used an…
Workplace drug testing in Australia is usually adherent to one of two standards, AS/NZS 4308:2008 for urine or AS 4760:2006 for oral fluid. These standards prescribe the drugs tested, devices used and testing methodology followed by the testing agency. However, they are not comprehensive and for many years workers have been able to consume novel psychoactive substances to avoid detection and without consequences. Here, we present a validated method for the detection of 32 Synthetic Stimulant and Hallucogenic drugs, commonly sold as bath salts, in oral fluid. These drugs are cathinone, ephedrone, methylone, flephedrone, MDA, PMA, methedrone, TMA, MDMA, butylone, mephedrone, MDEA, MEC, pentedrone, MBDB, MTA, Alpha-PVP, MPBP, 2C-B, MDPV, DOB, 2C-T-2, TFMPP, DOET, 2C-T-7, naphyrone, MDAI, FMA, DMA, 25C-NBOMe, 25B-NBOMe and 25T4-NBOMe. Sample preparation was undertaken using a simple protein precipitation in acetonitrile. Chromatographic separation was achieved in 7.5 min on a Kinetex F5 column (50 mm × 3 mm × 2.6 μm) using 0.1% formic acid in water and acetonitrile as the mobile phases. The method was validated with limit of detection (1 ng/mL), limit of quantitation (2.5 ng/mL), selectivity, linearity (2.5-500 ng/mL), accuracy (85.3-108.4% of the target concentration) and precision (1.9-14%). This method was applied to 12 samples previously submitted for routine testing and two were found to contain 2-CB and DOB (5 and 4 ng/mL) and, MPBP and TFMPP (both at 4 ng/mL). This method provides for the rapid detection of a large number of compounds in oral fluid which is readily applicable to routine testing laboratories.
- Mistaking 2C-P for 2C-B: What a Difference a Letter Makes. [Case Reports]
- JAJ Anal Toxicol 2017; 41(1):77-79
- 2,5-Dimethoxy-4(n)-propylphenethylamine (2C-P) is a synthetic phenethylamine derivative belonging to the large family of the so-called 2C drugs. These compounds can differ significantly in receptor a…
2,5-Dimethoxy-4(n)-propylphenethylamine (2C-P) is a synthetic phenethylamine derivative belonging to the large family of the so-called 2C drugs. These compounds can differ significantly in receptor affinity, potency and duration of action, and an important structural difference is the ligand in the 4 position of the phenyl ring, such as propyl in 2C-P or bromine in 2,5-dimethoxy-4-bromophenethylamine (2C-B). The 2C drugs are known for their hallucinogenic properties. We present a case of a 19-year-old male admitted to the emergency department with severe hallucinations, mydriasis, tachycardia, agitation and confusion following the use of a substance sold as 2C-B. By using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry, the more potent substance 2C-P was detected and quantified. On the basis of two blood sample concentrations, the estimated elimination half-life was 19 h. This case report illustrates and discusses the differences in potency and duration of action of 2C drugs.
- Urinary Excretion Profiles of 2,5-Dimethoxy-4-alkylthiophenethylamine Analogs in Rats. [Journal Article]
- BPBiol Pharm Bull 2016; 39(5):883-6
- The urinary metabolic profiles of three hallucinogenic 2,5-dimethoxy-4-alkylthiophenethylamine analogs: 2,5-dimethoxy-4-ethylthiophenethylamine (2C-T-2), 2,5-dimethoxy-4-isopropylthiophenethylamine (…
The urinary metabolic profiles of three hallucinogenic 2,5-dimethoxy-4-alkylthiophenethylamine analogs: 2,5-dimethoxy-4-ethylthiophenethylamine (2C-T-2), 2,5-dimethoxy-4-isopropylthiophenethylamine (2C-T-4), and 2,5-dimethoxy-4-propylthiophenethylamine (2C-T-7), were investigated in rats. For each drug, four male Sprague-Dawley rats were orally administered 10 mg/kg of 2C-T-2, 2C-T-4, or 2C-T-7, and urine was collected 0-24 and 24-48 h after administration. The urine samples were processed by liquid-liquid extraction, and the extracts were analyzed by liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry to quantify the metabolites. The metabolic patterns of these drugs were different: for 2C-T-7, the principal metabolite was the β-hydroxylated-N-acetylated-sulfoxide, whereas for 2C-T-2 and 2C-T-4 the major metabolites were the N-acetylated-sulfoxide and S-methylated-N-acetylated-sulfoxide, respectively.
- Determination of "new psychoactive substances" in postmortem matrices using microwave derivatization and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. [Journal Article]
- JCJ Chromatogr B Analyt Technol Biomed Life Sci 2016 May 01; 1020:14-23
- Despite worldwide efforts aiming to ban the marketing and subsequent abuse of psychoactive substances such as synthetic cathinones and phenethylamines, there has been an alarming growth of both in re…
Despite worldwide efforts aiming to ban the marketing and subsequent abuse of psychoactive substances such as synthetic cathinones and phenethylamines, there has been an alarming growth of both in recent years. Different compounds similar to those already existing are continuously appearing in the market in order to circumvent the legislation. An analytical methodology has been validated for qualitative and quantitative determinations of D-cathine (D-norpseudoehedrine), ephedrine, methcathinone, 1-(4-methoxyphenyl)-propan-2-amine (PMA), mephedrone, methedrone, 2,5-dimethoxy-4-methylamphetamine (DOM), 4-bromo-2,5-dimethoxyamphetamine (DOB), 2,5-dimethoxyphenethylamine (2C-H), 4-bromo-2,5-dimethoxyphenethylamine (2C-B), 4-iodo-2,5-dimethoxyphenethylamine (2C-I), 2-[2,5-dimethoxy-4-(ethylthio)phenyl]ethanamine (2C-T-2), 2,5-dimethoxy-4-isopropylthiophenethylamine (2C-T-4) and 2-[2,5-dimethoxy-4-(propylthio)phenyl]ethanamine (2C-T-7), in low volumes of vitreous humor (100 μL), pericardial fluid (250 μL) and whole blood (250 μL), using deutered amphetamine, ephedrine and mephedrone as internal standards. The validation parameters included selectivity, linearity and limits of detection and quantification, intra- and interday precision and trueness, recovery and stability. The method included mixed-mode solid phase extraction, followed by microwave fast derivatization and analysis by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry operated in selected ion monitoring mode. The procedure was linear between 5 and 600 ng/mL, with determination coefficients higher than 0.99 for all analytes. Intra- and interday precision ranged from 0.1 to 13.6%, while accuracy variability was within 80-120% interval from the nominal concentration at all studied levels. The extraction efficiencies ranged from 76.6 to 112.8%. Stability was considered acceptable for all compounds in the studied matrices. The developed assay was applied to authentic samples of the Laboratory of Chemistry and Forensic Toxicology, Centre Branch, of the National Institute of Legal Medicine and Forensic Sciences, Portugal.
- Receptor interaction profiles of novel N-2-methoxybenzyl (NBOMe) derivatives of 2,5-dimethoxy-substituted phenethylamines (2C drugs). [Journal Article]
- NNeuropharmacology 2015; 99:546-53
- CONCLUSIONS: The binding profile of NBOMe drugs predicts strong hallucinogenic effects, similar to LSD, but possibly more stimulant properties because of α1 receptor interactions.
- Simultaneous Determination of 11 Illicit Phenethylamines in Hair by LC-MS-MS: In Vivo Application. [Journal Article]
- JAJ Anal Toxicol 2015; 39(7):532-7
- Existing phenethylamines are a class of synthetic compounds that differ from each other only in small changes to a largely conserved chemical structure. The recreational and illicit use of phenethyla…
Existing phenethylamines are a class of synthetic compounds that differ from each other only in small changes to a largely conserved chemical structure. The recreational and illicit use of phenethylamines is a widespread problem. A simple procedure for the simultaneous quantitative determination in hair of 11 phenethylamines that are officially recognized as illicit by Italian legislation (p-methoxyamphetamine; p-methoxymethamphetamine; 3,4,5-trimethoxyamphetamine; 2,5-dimethoxyamphetamine; 2,5-dimethoxy-4-methylamphetamine; 2,5-dimethoxy-4-ethylamphetamine; 2,5-dimethoxy-4-bromoamphetamine; 2,5-dimethoxy-4-bromophenethylamine; 2,5-dimethoxy-4-iodophenethylamine; 2,5-dimethoxy-4-ethylthiophenethylamine and 2,5-dimethoxy-4-n-propylthiophenethylamine) has been developed and validated. Extraction from the matrix was performed after incubation in methanolic HCl and filtered reconstituted extracts were injected into a liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry system (LC-MS-MS) without any further purification steps. This validated LC-MS-MS method has been used to determine the in vivo accumulation/retention of the above target analytes in hair after repeat oral administration to rats. This experiment further permitted investigation of the effect of pigmentation on the uptake of these phenethylamines by hair and the effect of hair pigmentation. The developed method could potentially be used for forensic and toxicological purposes, in the detection and quantitation of these illicit substances in human hair in workplace drug testing; drug-facilitated crime investigation; driver re-licensing; determining drug abuse history and postmortem toxicology.
- Tolerance and cross-tolerance to head twitch behavior elicited by phenethylamine- and tryptamine-derived hallucinogens in mice. [Journal Article]
- JPJ Pharmacol Exp Ther 2014; 351(3):485-91
- The serotonin 5-hydroxytryptamine 2A (5-HT2A) receptor is a potential therapeutic target to a host of neuropsychiatric conditions, but agonist actions at this site are linked to abuse-related halluci…
The serotonin 5-hydroxytryptamine 2A (5-HT2A) receptor is a potential therapeutic target to a host of neuropsychiatric conditions, but agonist actions at this site are linked to abuse-related hallucinogenic effects that may limit therapeutic efficacy of chronic drug administration. Tolerance to some effects of hallucinogens has been observed in humans and laboratory animals, but the understanding of tolerance and cross-tolerance between distinct structural classes of hallucinogens is limited. Here, we used the drug-elicited head twitch response (HTR) in mice to assess the development of tolerance and cross-tolerance with two phenethylamine-derived [DOI (2,5-dimethoxy-4-iodoamphetamine) and 2C-T-7 (2,5-dimethoxy-4-propylthiophenethylamine)] and two tryptamine-derived [DPT (N,N-dipropyltryptamine) and DIPT (N,N-diisopropyltryptamine)] drugs with agonist affinity for 5-HT2A receptors. Tolerance developed to HTR elicited by daily DOI or 2C-T-7, but not to HTR elicited by DPT or DIPT. DOI-elicited tolerance was not surmountable with dose, and a similar insurmountable cross-tolerance was evident when DOI-tolerant mice were tested with various doses of 2C-T-7 or DPT. These studies suggest that the use of phenethylamine-derived hallucinogens as therapeutic agents may be limited not only by their abuse potential, but also by the rapid development of tolerance that would likely be maintained even if a patient were switched to a different 5-HT2A agonist medication from a distinct structural class. However, these experiments also imply that tryptamine-derived hallucinogens might have a reduced potential for tolerance development, compared with phenethylamine-derived 5-HT2A agonists, and might therefore be more suitable for chronic administration in a therapeutic context.
- Biotransformation and detectability of the designer drug 2,5-dimethoxy-4-propylphenethylamine (2C-P) studied in urine by GC-MS, LC-MS(n), and LC-high-resolution-MS(n). [Journal Article]
- ABAnal Bioanal Chem 2015; 407(3):831-43
- 2,5-Dimethoxy-4-propylphenethylamine (2C-P) is a hallucinogenic designer drug of the phenethylamine class, the so-called 2Cs, named according to the ethyl spacer between the nitrogen and the aromatic…
2,5-Dimethoxy-4-propylphenethylamine (2C-P) is a hallucinogenic designer drug of the phenethylamine class, the so-called 2Cs, named according to the ethyl spacer between the nitrogen and the aromatic ring. The aims of the present work were to identify the phases I and II metabolites of 2C-P. In addition, the detectability of 2C-P and its metabolites in urine as proof of an intake in clinical or forensic cases was tested. According to the identified metabolites, the following pathways were proposed: N-acetylation; deamination followed by reduction to the corresponding alcohol and oxidation to carbonic acid; mono- and bis-hydroxylation at different positions; mono- and bis-O-demethylation, followed by glucuronidation, sulfation, or both; and combination of these steps. Proof of an intake of a common user's dose of 2C-P was possible by both standard urine screening approaches, the GC-MS as well as the LC-MS(n) approach.
New Search Next
- New phenethylamines in Europe. [Review]
- DTDrug Test Anal 2014 Jul-Aug; 6(7-8):808-18
- Sixteen phenethylamines are now included in Schedules I and II of the United Nations 1971 Convention on Psychotropic Substances. Most of the ring-substituted compounds are in Schedule I, whereas 2C-B…
Sixteen phenethylamines are now included in Schedules I and II of the United Nations 1971 Convention on Psychotropic Substances. Most of the ring-substituted compounds are in Schedule I, whereas 2C-B, amphetamine, and methamphetamine are listed in Schedule II. Substances in Schedule IV (e.g. benzphetamine) are now regarded as obsolete pharmaceutical products. They all represent the 'old phenethylamines'. By 2013, nearly 100 illicit phenethylamines had been found in the European Union (EU). Of these, nine (MBDB, 4-MTA, PMMA, 2C-I, 2C-T-2, 2C-T-7, TMA-2, 5-IT and 4-MA) were submitted for risk assessment by the European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction (EMCDDA). All except MBDB were recommended for EU-wide control. Of the 'new phenethylamines', 2C-B was the most commonly reported, but other 2C compounds were widespread. Many of the ring-substituted phenethylamines are described in the 1991 book PIHKAL. Many fused ring phenethylamines have appeared in the past few years; they include further benzofurans (e.g. 5-and 6-APB), indanylalkylamines (e.g. 5-IAP), dibenzofurans (e.g. 2C-B-FLY) and 2-aminopropylindoles (e.g.5-IT). The recent and rapid rise of phenethylamines with bulky N-substituents (e.g. 25I-NBOMe) has been particularly significant. Although not phenethylamines, it is notable that the thiophene bioisosteres of amphetamine and methamphetamine as well as certain conformationally-restricted variants (e.g. aminoindanes) have been found in recent drug seizures. In the United Kingdom Misuse of Drugs Act, most ring-substituted phenethylamines are either listed by name or are covered by generic definitions dating from 1977. In 2013, temporary generic legislation included a number of benzofurans, indanylalkylamines and certain 'NBOMe' compounds.