- Effects of glucosamine supplements on painful temporomandibular joint osteoarthritis: a systematic review. [Review]
- JOJ Oral Rehabil 2018 Feb 15
- CONCLUSIONS: There is very low evidence regarding GS therapeutic effects on TMJ OA. Considering a follow-up of 12 weeks, GS were as effective as ibuprofen taken two or three times a day. However, over six weeks of medication intake, GS were not superior to placebo. Still, included studies presented major drawbacks, and therefore conclusions must be interpreted with caution. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
- Glycan distribution and density in native skin's stratum corneum. [Journal Article]
- SRSkin Res Technol 2018 Feb 07
- CONCLUSIONS: Glycan spatial distribution and degradation is first observed on the surface of SC in native conditions and at high resolution. The method used can be extended to precisely localize the presence of other macromolecules on the surface of skin or other tissues where the maintenance of its native state is required.
- Glycoside Hydrolase DisH from Desulfovibrio vulgaris Degrades the N-Acetylgalactosamine Component of Diverse Biofilms. [Journal Article]
- EMEnviron Microbiol 2018 Feb 06
- Biofilms of sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) produce H2S, which contributes to corrosion. Although bacterial cells in biofilms are cemented together, they often dissolve their own biofilm to allow the...
Biofilms of sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) produce H2S, which contributes to corrosion. Although bacterial cells in biofilms are cemented together, they often dissolve their own biofilm to allow the cells to disperse. Using Desulfovibrio vulgaris as a model SRB, we sought polysaccharide-degrading enzymes that disperse its biofilm. Using a whole-genome approach, we identified eight enzymes as putative extracellular glycoside hydrolases including DisH (DVU2239, dispersal hexosaminidase), an enzyme that we demonstrated here, by utilizing various p-nitrooligosaccharide substrates, to be an N-acetyl-β-D-hexosaminidase. For N-acetyl-β-D-galactosamine (GalNAc), Vmaxwas 3.6 µmol of p-nitrophenyl/min/(mg protein) and Kmwas 0.8 mM; the specific activity for N-acetyl β-D-glucosamine was 7.8 µmol of p-nitrophenyl/min/(mg protein). Since GalNAc is one of the three exopolysaccharide matrix components of D. vulgaris, purified DisH was found to disperse 63 ± 2% biofilm as well as inhibit biofilm formation up to 47 ± 4%. The temperature and pH optima are 60°C and pH 6, respectively; DisH is also inhibited by copper and is secreted. In addition, since polymers of GalNAc and GlcNAc are found in the matrix of diverse bacteria, DisH dispersed biofilms of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, and Bacillus subtilis. Therefore, DisH has the potential to inhibit and disperse a wide-range of biofilms. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
- Analgesic Use and Risk for Acute Coronary Events in Patients With Osteoarthritis: A Population-based, Nested Case-control Study. [Journal Article]
- CTClin Ther 2018 Feb 02
- CONCLUSIONS: In patients with clinically diagnosed OA, the use of nonselective NSAIDs or opioid analgesics is associated with an increased risk for acute coronary events. These risks should be considered when selecting treatments of OA in patients at high cardiovascular risk.
- Identification and characterization of chitinolytic bacteria isolated from a freshwater lake. [Journal Article]
- BBBiosci Biotechnol Biochem 2018 Jan 12; :1-13
- To develop a novel type of biocontrol agent, we focus on bacteria that are characterized by both chitinase activity and biofilm development. Chitinolytic bacteria were isolated from sediments and chi...
To develop a novel type of biocontrol agent, we focus on bacteria that are characterized by both chitinase activity and biofilm development. Chitinolytic bacteria were isolated from sediments and chitin flakes immersed in the water of a sand dune lake, Sakata, in Niigata, Japan. Thirty-one isolates from more than 5100 isolated strains were examined chitinase activity and biofilm formation. Phylogenetic analysis of these isolates based on the 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed that most isolates belonged to the family Aeromonadaceae, followed by Paenibacillaceae, Enterobacteriaceae, and Neisseriaceae. The specific activity of chitinase of four selected strains was higher than that of a reference strain. The molecular size of one chitinase produced by Andreprevotia was greater than that of typical bacterial chitinases. The dialyzed culture supernatant containing chitinases of the four strains suppressed hyphal growth of Trichoderma reesei. These results indicate that these four strains are good candidates for biocontrol agents.
- Structural analysis and biological activity of a highly regular glycosaminoglycan from Achatina fulica. [Journal Article]
- CPCarbohydr Polym 2018 Feb 01; 181:433-441
- Edible snails have been widely used as a health food and medicine in many countries. A unique glycosaminoglycan (AF-GAG) was purified from Achatina fulica. Its structure was analyzed and characterize...
Edible snails have been widely used as a health food and medicine in many countries. A unique glycosaminoglycan (AF-GAG) was purified from Achatina fulica. Its structure was analyzed and characterized by chemical and instrumental methods, such as Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, analysis of monosaccharide composition, and 1D/2D nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Chemical composition analysis indicated that AF-GAG is composed of iduronic acid (IdoA) and N-acetyl-glucosamine (GlcNAc) and its average molecular weight is 118kDa. Structural analysis clarified that the uronic acid unit in glycosaminoglycan (GAG) is the fully epimerized and the sequence of AF-GAG is →4)-α-GlcNAc (1→4)-α-IdoA2S (1→. Although its structure with a uniform repeating disaccharide is similar to those of heparin and heparan sulfate, this GAG is structurally highly regular and homogeneous. Anticoagulant activity assays indicated that AF-GAG exhibits no anticoagulant activities, but considering its structural characteristic, other bioactivities such as heparanase inhibition may be worthy of further study.
- Effects of Angelicae Pubescentis and Loranthi Decotion on repairing knee joint cartilages in rats. [Journal Article]
- JOJ Orthop Surg Res 2017 Dec 12; 12(1):189
- CONCLUSIONS: APLD or GS gavage treatment for knee osteoarthritis (KOA) rat models was effective on the proliferation of cartilage chondrocytes and the damaged knee joint tissue repairing, and the APLD showed slightly superior in general.
- Chondroitin sulfate and glucosamine sulfate associated to photobiomodulation prevents degenerative morphological changes in an experimental model of osteoarthritis in rats. [Journal Article]
- LMLasers Med Sci 2017 Dec 01
- The aim of this study was to compare the effects of combined treatment with chondroitin sulfate and glucosamine sulfate (CS/Gl) and photobiomodulation (PBM) on the degenerative process related to ost...
The aim of this study was to compare the effects of combined treatment with chondroitin sulfate and glucosamine sulfate (CS/Gl) and photobiomodulation (PBM) on the degenerative process related to osteoarthritis (OA) in the articular cartilage in rats. Forty male Wistar rats were randomly divided into four groups: OA control group (CG); OA animals submitted to PBM treatment (PBM); OA animals submitted to CS/Gl treatment (CS/Gl); OA submitted to CS/GS associated with PBM treatments (GS/Gl + PBM). The CS/Gl started 48 h after the surgery, and they were performed for 29 consecutive days. Moreover, PBM was performed after the CS/Gl administration on the left joint. Morphological characteristics and immunoexpression of interleukin 10 (IL-10) and 1 beta (IL-1β) and collagen type II (Col II) of the articular cartilage were evaluated. The results showed that all treated groups (CS/Gl and PBM) presented attenuation signs of degenerative process (measured by histopathological analysis) and lower density chondrocytes [PBM (p = 0.0017); CS/Gl (p = 0.0153) and CS/Gl + PBM (p = 0.002)]. Additionally, CS/Gl [associated (p = 0.0089) or not with PBM (p = 0.0059)] showed significative lower values for OARSI grade evaluation. Furthermore, CS/GS + PBM decreased IL-1β protein expression (p = 0.0359) and increased IL-10 (p = 0.028) and Col II imunoexpression (p = 0.0204) compared to CG. This study showed that CS/Gl associated with PBM was effective in modulating inflammatory process and preventing the articular tissue degradation in the knees OA rats.
- Inappropriate claims from non-equivalent medications in osteoarthritis: a position paper endorsed by the European Society for Clinical and Economic Aspects of Osteoporosis, Osteoarthritis and Musculoskeletal Diseases (ESCEO). [Review]
- ACAging Clin Exp Res 2018; 30(2):111-117
- Osteoarthritis (OA) is a progressive joint disease, that occurs frequently in the aging population and is a major cause of disability worldwide. Both glucosamine and chondroitin are biologically acti...
Osteoarthritis (OA) is a progressive joint disease, that occurs frequently in the aging population and is a major cause of disability worldwide. Both glucosamine and chondroitin are biologically active molecules that are substrates for proteoglycan, an essential component of the cartilage matrix. Evidence supports the use of glucosamine and chondroitin as symptomatic slow-acting drugs for osteoarthritis (SYSADOAs) with impact on OA symptoms and disease-modifying effects in the long term. Glucosamine and chondroitin are administered in exogenous form as a sulfate salt and multiple formulations of these agents are available, both as prescription-grade products and nutritional supplements. However, while all preparations may claim to deliver a therapeutic level of glucosamine or chondroitin not all are supported by clinical evidence. Only patented crystalline glucosamine sulfate (pCGS) is shown to deliver consistently high glucosamine bioavailability and plasma concentration in humans, which corresponds to demonstrated clinical efficacy. Similarly, clinical evidence supports only the pharmaceutical-grade chondroitin sulfate. The European Society for Clinical and Economic Aspects of Osteoporosis, Osteoarthritis and Musculoskeletal Diseases (ESCEO) advocates, through careful consideration of the evidence base, that judicious choice of glucosamine and chondroitin formulation is essential to maximize clinical benefit, patient adherence and satisfaction with treatment. In future, the ESCEO recommends that complex molecules with biological activity such as pCGS may be treated as "biosimilars" akin to the European Medicines Agency guidance on biological medicinal products. It seems likely that for all other complex molecules classed as SYSADOAs, the recommendation to use only formulations clearly supported by the evidence-base should apply.
New Search Next
- [Melatonin in the treatment of low back pain and predictors of its efficacy]. [Journal Article]
- ZNZh Nevrol Psikhiatr Im S S Korsakova 2017; 117(10):49-54
- CONCLUSIONS: A significant reduction in pain intensity at movement and resting state was noted in all main groups compared to comparison groups. This result indicates possible analgesic properties of melatonin. Moreover, factors predicting the efficacy of such therapy were determined. Addition of melatonin to the standard scheme of low back pain treatment increases its efficacy, in particular in case of comorbidity of pain and sleep disorders and depressive symptoms.