- [PROTECTIVE EFFECT OF GLUCOSAMINE-HYDROCHLORIDE ON CARTILAGE IN BLOOD-INDUCED JOINT DAMAGE IN VIVO]. [Journal Article]
- ZXZhongguo Xiu Fu Chong Jian Wai Ke Za Zhi 2016 May 08; 30(5):562-568
- CONCLUSIONS: The metabolism disorder of cartilage matrix and synovium inflammatory reaction can be observed in rat joint bleeding model. Glu/Ch has certain protective effect on the cartilage after BJD by down-regulating IL-1β, TNF-α, and MMP-13, as well as increasing proteoglycan content in the cartilage.
- Glucosamine and Chondroitin Sulfate: What Has Been Learned Since the Glucosamine/chondroitin Arthritis Intervention Trial. [Journal Article]
- OOrthopedics 2018 May 16; :1-8
- Glucosamine and chondroitin sulfate, alone or in combination, are used worldwide by individuals suffering from osteoarthritis pain. They are by prescription in some countries but are available as ove...
Glucosamine and chondroitin sulfate, alone or in combination, are used worldwide by individuals suffering from osteoarthritis pain. They are by prescription in some countries but are available as over-the-counter dietary supplements in other countries, such as the United States. The inconclusive results of the National Institutes of Health-sponsored Glucosamine/chondroitin Arthritis Intervention Trial (GAIT) did little to clarify the efficacy of these agents. However, some newer studies have provided a better perspective on the potential benefits that they can offer. Because the 2 in combination showed a significant level of efficacy in the moderate-to-severe knee osteoarthritis subgroup of the GAIT, this review examines the randomized, controlled trials published from that time to the present. The findings of these studies are mixed, owing in some cases to the high rate of placebo response added to by the ethical incorporation of rescue analgesics into protocols designed to evaluate the slow-acting, subtle effects of glucosamine and chondroitin sulfate in combination. The strong influence of the placebo effect and confounding of results by rescue analgesics point to the importance of objective measurement tools such as osteoarthritis biomarker panels in long-term glucosamine/chondroitin sulfate clinical trials with less reliance on the subjective measurement tools commonly used in osteoarthritis trials of pharmaceuticals. [Orthopedics. 201x; xx(x):xx-xx.].
- Effectiveness of a Dietary Supplement Containing Hydrolyzed Collagen, Chondroitin Sulfate, and Glucosamine in Pain Reduction and Functional Capacity in Osteoarthritis Patients. [Journal Article]
- JDJ Diet Suppl 2018 Apr 27; :1-11
- This observational, open, multicenter clinical trial with a single treatment group aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of a dietary supplement whose main ingredients are hydrolyzed gelatin, chondroit...
This observational, open, multicenter clinical trial with a single treatment group aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of a dietary supplement whose main ingredients are hydrolyzed gelatin, chondroitin sulfate, glucosamine sulfate, and devil's claw and bamboo extracts for pain reduction and improvement of functional capacities in patients with osteoarthritis (OA) of the knee and/or hip (REDART study). In all, 130 patients with OA recruited from Spanish hospitals received the dietary supplement for 6 months. The primary outcome was the patients' global assessment of pain in the affected joint as measured with a visual analogue scale (VAS). Other outcome measurements included the Lequesne Functional Index (subindexes for pain/discomfort, distance walked, and daily living) and the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Arthritis Index (WOMAC; subindexes for pain, stiffness, and physical function). Scores were taken at months 3 and 6 of the treatment. Patients (N = 78) showed a reduction of pain of 3.77 ± 1.77 points after 6 months (p < .0001) in the VAS. The total reduction in the Lequesne Functional Index was 6.30 ± 4.08 points after 6 months (p < .0001), with significant reductions in all subindexes of the scale. A similar pattern was found for the WOMAC index, with an overall reduction of 22.49 ± 14.03 points after 6 months (p < .0001) and significant reductions in all subindexes. No major adverse events were noted during the treatment. This exploratory study shows that treatment with the dietary supplement significantly reduces pain and improves locomotor function in patients with OA of the knee and/or hip.
- Glucosamine for the Treatment of Osteoarthritis: The Time Has Come for Higher-Dose Trials. [Journal Article]
- JDJ Diet Suppl 2018 Apr 18; :1-14
- Although clinical trials with glucosamine in osteoarthritis have yielded mixed results, leading to doubts about its efficacy, the utility of glucosamine for preventing joint destruction and inflammat...
Although clinical trials with glucosamine in osteoarthritis have yielded mixed results, leading to doubts about its efficacy, the utility of glucosamine for preventing joint destruction and inflammation is well documented in rodent models of arthritis, including models of spontaneous osteoarthritis. The benefit of oral glucosamine in adjuvant arthritis is markedly dose dependent, likely reflecting a modulation of tissue levels of UDP-N-acetylglucosamine that in turn influences mucopolysaccharide synthesis and the extent of protein O-GlcNAcylation. Importantly, the minimal oral dose of glucosamine that exerts a detectible benefit in adjuvant arthritis achieves plasma glucosamine levels similar to those achieved when the standard clinical dose of glucosamine, 1.5 g daily, is administered as a bolus. The response of plasma glucosamine levels to an increase in glucosamine intake is nearly linear. Remarkably, every published clinical trial with glucosamine has employed the same 1.5 g dose that Rottapharm recommended for its proprietary glucosamine sulfate product decades ago, yet there has never been any published evidence that this dose is optimal with respect to efficacy and side effects. If this dose is on the edge of demonstrable clinical efficacy when experimental design is ideal, then variations in the patient populations targeted, the assessment vehicles employed, and the potency of glucosamine preparations tested could be expected to yield some null results. Failure to employ bolus dosing may also be a factor in the null results observed in the GAIT study and other trials. Clinical studies evaluating the dose dependency of glucosamine's influence on osteoarthritis are long overdue.
- Negative Electron Transfer Dissociation Sequencing of 3-O-Sulfation-Containing Heparan Sulfate Oligosaccharides. [Journal Article]
- JAJ Am Soc Mass Spectrom 2018 Mar 21
- Among dissociation methods, negative electron transfer dissociation (NETD) has been proven the most useful for glycosaminoglycan (GAG) sequencing because it produces informative fragmentation, a low ...
Among dissociation methods, negative electron transfer dissociation (NETD) has been proven the most useful for glycosaminoglycan (GAG) sequencing because it produces informative fragmentation, a low degree of sulfate losses, high sensitivity, and translatability to multiple instrument types. The challenge, however, is to distinguish positional sulfation. In particular, NETD has been reported to fail to differentiate 4-O- versus 6-O-sulfation in chondroitin sulfate decasaccharide. This raised the concern of whether NETD is able to differentiate the rare 3-O-sulfation from predominant 6-O-sulfation in heparan sulfate (HS) oligosaccharides. Here, we report that NETD generates highly informative spectra that differentiate sites of O-sulfation on glucosamine residues, enabling structural characterizations of synthetic HS isomers containing 3-O-sulfation. Further, lyase-resistant 3-O-sulfated tetrasaccharides from natural sources were successfully sequenced. Notably, for all of the oligosaccharides in this study, the successful sequencing is based on NETD tandem mass spectra of commonly observed deprotonated precursor ions without derivatization or metal cation adduction, simplifying the experimental workflow and data interpretation. These results demonstrate the potential of NETD as a sensitive analytical tool for detailed, high-throughput structural analysis of highly sulfated GAGs. Graphical Abstract.
- N-Acetyl-Glucosamine Sensitizes Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Cells to TRAIL-Induced Apoptosis by Activating Death Receptor 5. [Journal Article]
- CPCell Physiol Biochem 2018; 45(5):2054-2070
- CONCLUSIONS: These results uncovered the molecular mechanism by which GlcNAc sensitizes cancer cells to TRAIL-induced apoptosis, thereby highlighting a novel effective agent for TRAIL-mediated NSCLC-targeted therapy.
- Heparan sulfate D-glucosamine 3-O-sulfotransferase 3B1 is a novel regulator of transforming growth factor-beta-mediated epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition and regulated by miR-218 in nonsmall cell lung cancer. [Journal Article]
- JCJ Cancer Res Ther 2018; 14(1):24-29
- CONCLUSIONS: These findings indicate that HS3ST3B1 is a novel regulator of TGF-beta-mediated EMT and is regulated by miR-218 in NSCLC.
- Glycan distribution and density in native skin's stratum corneum. [Journal Article]
- SRSkin Res Technol 2018 Feb 07
- CONCLUSIONS: Glycan spatial distribution and degradation is first observed on the surface of SC in native conditions and at high resolution. The method used can be extended to precisely localize the presence of other macromolecules on the surface of skin or other tissues where the maintenance of its native state is required.
- Glycoside hydrolase DisH from Desulfovibrio vulgaris degrades the N-acetylgalactosamine component of diverse biofilms. [Journal Article]
- EMEnviron Microbiol 2018 Feb 06
- Biofilms of sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) produce H2 S, which contributes to corrosion. Although bacterial cells in biofilms are cemented together, they often dissolve their own biofilm to allow th...
Biofilms of sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) produce H2 S, which contributes to corrosion. Although bacterial cells in biofilms are cemented together, they often dissolve their own biofilm to allow the cells to disperse. Using Desulfovibrio vulgaris as a model SRB, we sought polysaccharide-degrading enzymes that disperse its biofilm. Using a whole-genome approach, we identified eight enzymes as putative extracellular glycoside hydrolases including DisH (DVU2239, dispersal hexosaminidase), an enzyme that we demonstrated here, by utilizing various p-nitrooligosaccharide substrates, to be an N-acetyl-β-D-hexosaminidase. For N-acetyl-β-D-galactosamine (GalNAc), Vmax was 3.6 µmol of p-nitrophenyl/min (mg protein)-1 and Km was 0.8 mM; the specific activity for N-acetyl β-D-glucosamine (GlcNAc) was 7.8 µmol of p-nitrophenyl/min (mg protein)-1 . Since GalNAc is one of the three exopolysaccharide matrix components of D. vulgaris, purified DisH was found to disperse 63 ± 2% biofilm as well as inhibit biofilm formation up to 47 ± 4%. The temperature and pH optima are 60°C and pH 6, respectively; DisH is also inhibited by copper and is secreted. In addition, since polymers of GalNAc and GlcNAc are found in the matrix of diverse bacteria, DisH dispersed biofilms of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli and Bacillus subtilis. Therefore, DisH has the potential to inhibit and disperse a wide-range of biofilms.
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- Analgesic Use and Risk for Acute Coronary Events in Patients With Osteoarthritis: A Population-based, Nested Case-control Study. [Journal Article]
- CTClin Ther 2018; 40(2):270-283
- CONCLUSIONS: In patients with clinically diagnosed OA, the use of nonselective NSAIDs or opioid analgesics is associated with an increased risk for acute coronary events. These risks should be considered when selecting treatments of OA in patients at high cardiovascular risk.