- Preterm delivery and small-for-gestation outcomes in HIV-infected pregnant women on antiretroviral therapy in rural South Africa: Results from a cohort study, 2010-2015. [Journal Article]
- PlosPLoS One 2018; 13(2):e0192805
- CONCLUSIONS: Preconception TDF-(3TC/FTC)-EFV and post-conception TDF-(3TC/FTC)-EFV were not associated with PTD or SGA, compared with other regimens. Increasing ART use merits further study of the optimum ART regimen for safe birth outcomes.
- Long-term efficacy and safety of rilpivirine plus abacavir and lamivudine in HIV-1 infected patients with undetectable viral load. [Journal Article]
- PlosPLoS One 2018; 13(2):e0191300
- CONCLUSIONS: In this analysis, 100 patients starting RPV plus ABC/3TC were included. By 12, 24 and 36 months after switching to RPV plus ABC/3TC, the proportions of individuals without TF were 88% [95% confidence interval (CI): 79%-93%], 82% (95% CI:73%-89%) and 78% (95% CI:68%-86%), respectively. Time to TF was not significantly influenced by CD4+ nadir (≤200 vs >200 cells/μl; log-rank test: p = 0.311) or pre-ART viral load (<100000 vs ≥100000 copies/mL; log-rank test: p = 0.574) or the type of previous antiretroviral regimen (PI+2NRTIs vs NNRTI+2NRTIs vs Other; log-rank test: p = 0.942). Over a median follow-up of 2.9 years (IQR: 1.9-3.5), 26 subjects discontinued the treatment [10 due to toxicity, 7 for interactions with other drugs, 3 due to cardiovascular risk concern, 2 due to single viral blip, 1 due to VF, 1 for asthma, 1 patient's decision, 1 due to enrolment in a study protocol].In this retrospective study, long-term use of RPV plus ABC/3TC regimen is effective and safe. Efficacy of this regimen was not found to be affected by low CD4+ nadir or high pre-ART viral load.
- Switching from abacavir to tenofovir disoproxil fumarate is associated with rises in soluble glycoprotein VI, suggesting changes in platelet-collagen interactions. [Journal Article]
- AIDSAIDS 2018 Feb 12
- CONCLUSIONS: The significant increases in sGPVI that occur with a switch from ABC/3TC are suggestive of changes in platelet function centred on platelet/collagen interactions and potentially represent an underlying mechanism to explain increased risk of myocardial infarction with ABC.
- Nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor-induced rat oocyte dysfunction and low fertility mediated by autophagy. [Journal Article]
- OOncotarget 2018 Jan 09; 9(3):3895-3907
- Low fertility is one of the most common side effects caused by nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs), whereas the molecular mechanism underlying this process were largely unclear. This ...
Low fertility is one of the most common side effects caused by nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs), whereas the molecular mechanism underlying this process were largely unclear. This study was conducted to investigate whether autophagy plays a role in NRTIs-induced oocyte dysfunction and low fertility in female rat. Both in vivo and in vitro experiments were conducted. For the in vivo experiment, female adult Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to zidovudine (AZT) and lamivudine (3TC) intragastric treatment for 3, 6, 9, and 12 weeks; a control was also set. Oocytes were collected for maturation evaluation, in vitro fertilization and mitochondrial function assays, and apoptosis and autophagy analysis. For the in vitro experiment, oocytes were collected and assigned to the control, 3-methyladenine (3-MA, an effective autophagy inhibitor), AZT, AZT+3-MA, 3TC, and 3TC+3-MA groups. The oocytes were cultured with the abovementioned drugs for 24, 48, and 72 h and then, subjected to the same assays as in the in vivo study. The results showed a significant time-dependent decrease in oocyte maturation-related maker levels, oocyte cleavage rate, blastocyst formation rate, mitochondrial DNA copy number and adenosine triphosphate level, and apoptosis, and a significant increase in the reactive oxygen species levels (all P-values < 0.05), in both the in vivo and the in vitro experiments. These changes, except for the changes in the oocyte maturation-related markers, were partially attenuated by 3-MA. In conclusion, we demonstrated that NRTIs can cause rat oocyte dysfunction and low fertility, and this damage was, at least partially, mediated by autophagy.
- Analysis of HBV basal core promoter/precore gene variability in patients with HBV drug resistance and HIV co-infection in Northwest Ethiopia. [Journal Article]
- PlosPLoS One 2018; 13(2):e0191970
- CONCLUSIONS: No correlation observed between the BCP/PC genome variability and the YMDD RT motif associated HBV drug resistance gene variants during HIV co-infection. Nevertheless, irrespective of HIV co-infection status, the higher records of the BCP/PC gene variability in this study setting indicate a high risk of potential HBeAg negative chronic HBV infection in Northwest Ethiopia.
- Abacavir/Lamivudine and Tenofovir/Emtricitabine in Pregnant Women with Hiv: Laboratory and Clinical Outcomes in an Observational National Study. [Journal Article]
- JAJ Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 2018 Feb 05
- CONCLUSIONS: In this study, use of TDF/FTC and ABC/3TC in pregnancy was associated with similar pregnancy outcomes and with some differences in laboratory measures that might guide physicians' prescriptions in mothers with haematologic or metabolic risk factors.
- Challenges in Assessing Outcomes among Infants of Pregnant HIV-Positive Women Receiving ART in Uganda. [Journal Article]
- ARAIDS Res Treat 2017; 2017:3202737
- Since 2012, the WHO recommends lifelong ART with TDF+FTC/3TC+EFV for all HIV-positive pregnant and breastfeeding women (Option B-plus). In this analysis we describe the proportion of early and late t...
Since 2012, the WHO recommends lifelong ART with TDF+FTC/3TC+EFV for all HIV-positive pregnant and breastfeeding women (Option B-plus). In this analysis we describe the proportion of early and late transmission in mothers with high retention in Kampala, Uganda. We included 700 pregnant women from January 2012 to August 2014 with a follow-up extended to August 2016; the median age was 31 years (IQR: 26-35), 36.3% in WHO stage 3/4; median CD4 count was 447 cells/μL (IQR: 301-651) and 73.3% were already on ART for a median time of 28 (IQR: 10-57) months; 52% infants were male and median weight was 3.2 Kg (IQR: 2.5-3.5). Five hundred and sixty-five (80.7%) infants had at least one test for HIV; 22 (3.1%) infants died, all with unknown serostatus; 3 tested positive at week 6 and one additional at months 12 and 18. Two of the mothers of the 4 HIV-positive infants were ART-naïve at the time of pregnancy. We report very low documented HIV transmission comparable with those reported in clinical trials settings; however, demonstrating the efficacy of Option B-plus in terms of averted transmission in routine settings is challenging since high proportion of infants do not have documented HIV tests.
- Different degree of immune recovery using antiretroviral regimens with Vonavir or Zidovudine/Lamivudine and Efavirenz in Patients receiving first line treatment in Iran. [Journal Article]
- IDInfect Disord Drug Targets 2018 01 07
- The initial ART regimens used by most national treatment guidelines in resource-limited settings include 2 nucleoside reverse-transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs) and 1 non-nucleoside reverse-transcripta...
The initial ART regimens used by most national treatment guidelines in resource-limited settings include 2 nucleoside reverse-transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs) and 1 non-nucleoside reverse-transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI). The NRTIshave consistedof Zidovudine (AZT) or Stavudine (d4T) with Lamivudine (3TC); the NNRTI component hasbeen Nevirapine (NVP) or Efavirenz (EFV). There exists few data indicating if Vonavir is more effective in increasing CD4+ T cell counts or other first-line drugs of ART.Immunological outcomes of 134 individuals who just started antiretroviral therapy with Vonavir or Zidovudine/Lamivudine and Efavirenzanalyzed. Immunological response was then assessed during 28 weeks and indicated significant CD4+ T cell increase in both groups. The increase in CD4+ T cell counts was greater in Zidovudine/Lamivudine and Efavirenz treated group. A rapid CD4+ T cell increase occurred after the first 12 weeks of therapy in Vonavir treated group with initial CD4+ T cell counts ≤100 despite the individuals with higher CD4+ T cell counts. As previous studies, we observed the noticeable increase rate of CD4+ Tcells is in the first three months of therapy. A rapid CD4+ Tcell increase occurred shortly after beginning anti retroviraltherapy using either Vonaviror Zidovudine/Lamivudine and Efavirenz. Late increases in CD4+ T cell counts are more pronounced in therapy using Zidovudine/Lamivudine and Efavirenz.
- The burden of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection, genotypes and drug resistance mutations in human immunodeficiency virus-positive patients in Northwest Ethiopia. [Journal Article]
- PlosPLoS One 2017; 12(12):e0190149
- CONCLUSIONS: In this cross-sectional study of HIV-infected individuals, we found 5.5% HBV/HIV co-infected cases. Most were receiving the first generation anti-HBV therapy with a low genetic barrier to resistance, and several carried mutations associated with anti-HBV (3TC) drug resistance. These data underscore the importance of integrating HBV screening to the HIV treatment guidelines for better management and prevention of HBV-related liver disease.
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- Luteolin-7-O-Glucoside Present in Lettuce Extracts Inhibits Hepatitis B Surface Antigen Production and Viral Replication by Human Hepatoma Cells in Vitro. [Journal Article]
- FMFront Microbiol 2017; 8:2425
- Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is endemic in Asia and chronic hepatitis B (CHB) is a major public health issue worldwide. Current treatment strategies for CHB are not satisfactory as they induce a...
Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is endemic in Asia and chronic hepatitis B (CHB) is a major public health issue worldwide. Current treatment strategies for CHB are not satisfactory as they induce a low rate of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) loss. Extracts were prepared from lettuce hydroponically cultivated in solutions containing glycine or nitrate as nitrogen sources. The lettuce extracts exerted potent anti-HBV effects in HepG2 cell lines in vitro, including significant HBsAg inhibition, HBV replication and transcription inhibition, without exerting cytotoxic effects. When used in combination interferon-alpha 2b (IFNα-2b) or lamivudine (3TC), the lettuce extracts synergistically inhibited HBsAg expression and HBV replication. By using differential metabolomics analysis, Luteolin-7-O-glucoside was identified and confirmed as a functional component of the lettuce extracts and exhibited similar anti-HBV activity as the lettuce extracts in vitro. The inhibition rate on HBsAg was up to 77.4%. Moreover, both the lettuce extracts and luteolin-7-O-glucoside functioned as organic antioxidants and, significantly attenuated HBV-induced intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation. Luteolin-7-O-glucoside also normalized ROS-induced mitochondrial membrane potential damage, which suggests luteolin-7-O-glucoside inhibits HBsAg and HBV replication via a mechanism involving the mitochondria. Our findings suggest luteolin-7-O-glucoside may have potential value for clinical application in CHB and may enhance HBsAg and HBV clearance when used as a combination therapy.