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- Rumen-Protected 5-Hydroxytryptophan Improves Sheep Melatonin Synthesis in the Pineal Gland and Intestinal Tract. [Journal Article]
- MSMed Sci Monit 2019 May 15; 25:3605-3616
- CONCLUSIONS: Rumen-protected 5-hydroxytryptophan promoted melatonin synthesis in the pineal gland and intestinal tract during the natural light period.
- The Serotonin Syndrome: From Molecular Mechanisms to Clinical Practice. [Review]
- IJInt J Mol Sci 2019 May 09; 20(9)
- The serotonin syndrome is a medication-induced condition resulting from serotonergic hyperactivity, usually involving antidepressant medications. As the number of patients experiencing medically-trea…
The serotonin syndrome is a medication-induced condition resulting from serotonergic hyperactivity, usually involving antidepressant medications. As the number of patients experiencing medically-treated major depressive disorder increases, so does the population at risk for experiencing serotonin syndrome. Excessive synaptic stimulation of 5-HT2A receptors results in autonomic and neuromuscular aberrations with potentially life-threatening consequences. In this review, we will outline the molecular basis of the disease and describe how pharmacologic agents that are in common clinical use can interfere with normal serotonergic pathways to result in a potentially fatal outcome. Given that serotonin syndrome can imitate other clinical conditions, an understanding of the molecular context of this condition is essential for its detection and in order to prevent rapid clinical deterioration.
- Melatonin Synthesis and Function: Evolutionary History in Animals and Plants. [Review]
- FEFront Endocrinol (Lausanne) 2019; 10:249
- Melatonin is an ancient molecule that can be traced back to the origin of life. Melatonin's initial function was likely that as a free radical scavenger. Melatonin presumably evolved in bacteria; it …
Melatonin is an ancient molecule that can be traced back to the origin of life. Melatonin's initial function was likely that as a free radical scavenger. Melatonin presumably evolved in bacteria; it has been measured in both α-proteobacteria and in photosynthetic cyanobacteria. In early evolution, bacteria were phagocytosed by primitive eukaryotes for their nutrient value. According to the endosymbiotic theory, the ingested bacteria eventually developed a symbiotic association with their host eukaryotes. The ingested α-proteobacteria evolved into mitochondria while cyanobacteria became chloroplasts and both organelles retained their ability to produce melatonin. Since these organelles have persisted to the present day, all species that ever existed or currently exist may have or may continue to synthesize melatonin in their mitochondria (animals and plants) and chloroplasts (plants) where it functions as an antioxidant. Melatonin's other functions, including its multiple receptors, developed later in evolution. In present day animals, via receptor-mediated means, melatonin functions in the regulation of sleep, modulation of circadian rhythms, enhancement of immunity, as a multifunctional oncostatic agent, etc., while retaining its ability to reduce oxidative stress by processes that are, in part, receptor-independent. In plants, melatonin continues to function in reducing oxidative stress as well as in promoting seed germination and growth, improving stress resistance, stimulating the immune system and modulating circadian rhythms; a single melatonin receptor has been identified in land plants where it controls stomatal closure on leaves. The melatonin synthetic pathway varies somewhat between plants and animals. The amino acid, tryptophan, is the necessary precursor of melatonin in all taxa. In animals, tryptophan is initially hydroxylated to 5-hydroxytryptophan which is then decarboxylated with the formation of serotonin. Serotonin is either acetylated to N-acetylserotonin or it is methylated to form 5-methoxytryptamine; these products are either methylated or acetylated, respectively, to produce melatonin. In plants, tryptophan is first decarboxylated to tryptamine which is then hydroxylated to form serotonin.
- Serotonin synthesis protects the mouse colonic crypt from DNA damage and colorectal tumorigenesis. [Journal Article]
- JPJ Pathol 2019 Apr 30
- Serotonin (5-HT) signaling pathways are thought to be involved in colorectal tumorigenesis (CRT), but the role of 5-HT synthesis in the early steps of this process is presently unknown. In this study…
Serotonin (5-HT) signaling pathways are thought to be involved in colorectal tumorigenesis (CRT), but the role of 5-HT synthesis in the early steps of this process is presently unknown. In this study, we used carcinogen treatment in the tryptophan hydroxylase 1 knockout (Tph1KO) and transgenic (Tph1fl/fl VillinCre) mouse models defective in 5-HT synthesis to investigate the early mutagenic events associated with CRT. Our observations of the colonic crypt post-treatment followed a timeline designed to understand how disruption of 5-HT synthesis affects the initial steps leading to CRT. We found Tph1KO mice had decreased development of both allograft tumors and colitis-related CRT. Interestingly, carcinogenic exposure alone induced multiple colon tumors and increased cyclooxygenase-2 (Ptgs2) expression in Tph1KO mice. Deletion of interleukin 6 (Il6) in Tph1KO mice confirmed that inflammation was a part of the process. 5-HT deficiency increased colonic DNA damage but inhibited genetic repair of specific carcinogen-related damage, leading to CRT-related inflammatory reactions and dysplasia. To validate a secondary effect of 5-HT deficiency on another DNA repair pathway, we exposed Tph1KO mice to ionizing radiation and found an increase in DNA damage associated with reduced levels of ataxia telangiectasia and Rad3 related (Atr) gene expression in colonocytes. Restoring 5-HT levels with 5-hydroxytryptophan treatment decreased levels of DNA damage and increased Atr expression. Analysis of Tph1fl/fl VillinCre mice with intestine-specific loss of 5-HT synthesis confirmed that DNA repair was tissue specific. In this study, we report a novel protective role for 5-HT synthesis that promotes DNA repair activity during the early stages of colorectal carcinogenesis. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
- Slow-release delivery enhances the pharmacological properties of oral 5-hydroxytryptophan: mouse proof-of-concept. [Journal Article]
- NNeuropsychopharmacology 2019 Apr 29
- 5-hydroxytryptophan (5-HTP) has shown therapeutic promise in a range of human CNS disorders. But native 5-HTP immediate release (IR) is poorly druggable, as rapid absorption causes rapid onset of adv…
5-hydroxytryptophan (5-HTP) has shown therapeutic promise in a range of human CNS disorders. But native 5-HTP immediate release (IR) is poorly druggable, as rapid absorption causes rapid onset of adverse events, and rapid elimination causes fluctuating exposure. Recently, we reported that 5-HTP delivered as slow-release (SR) in mice augmented the brain pro-serotonergic effect of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), without the usual adverse events associated with 5-HTP IR. However, our previous study entailed translational limitations, in terms of route, dose, and duration. Here we modeled oral 5-HTP SR in mice by administering 5-HTP via the food. We modeled oral SSRI treatment via fluoxetine in the water, in a regimen recapitulating clinical pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics. 5-HTP SR produced plasma 5-HTP levels well within the range enhancing brain 5-HT function in humans. 5-HTP SR robustly increased brain 5-HT synthesis and levels. When administered with an SSRI, 5-HTP SR enhanced 5-HT-sensitive behaviors and neurotrophic mRNA expression. 5-HTP SR's pro-serotonergic effects were stronger in mice with endogenous brain 5-HT deficiency. In a comprehensive screen, 5-HTP SR was devoid of overt toxicological effects. The present preclinical data, appreciated in the context of published 5-HTP clinical data, suggest that 5-HTP SR could represent a new therapeutic approach to the plethora of CNS disorders potentially treatable with a pro-serotonergic drug. 5-HTP SR might in particular be therapeutically relevant when brain 5-HT deficiency is pathogenic and as an adjunctive augmentation therapy to SSRI therapy.
- A new oxidative stress indicator: Effect of 5-hydroxytryptophan on thiol-disulfide homeostasis in exercise. [Journal Article]
- NNutrition 2019 Jan 30; 63-64:114-119
- CONCLUSIONS: Both 5-HTP and moderate exercise seem to be significantly effective in inhibiting oxidative damage. In addition, the new oxidative stress measurement method used in this study is a promising practical and useful method to evaluate and improve the performance of athletes.
- Unilateral ureteral obstruction causes gut microbial dysbiosis and metabolome disorders contributing to tubulointerstitial fibrosis. [Journal Article]
- EMExp Mol Med 2019 Mar 27; 51(3):38
- Chronic kidney disease (CKD) increases the risk and prevalence of cardiovascular disease (CVD) morbidity and mortality. Recent studies have revealed marked changes in the composition of the microbiom…
Chronic kidney disease (CKD) increases the risk and prevalence of cardiovascular disease (CVD) morbidity and mortality. Recent studies have revealed marked changes in the composition of the microbiome and the metabolome and their potential influence in renal disease and CVD via the accumulation of microbial-derived uremic toxins. However, the effect of unilateral ureteral obstruction (UUO) on the gut microbiome and circulating metabolites is unknown. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomized to UUO and sham-operated control groups. Renal histology, colonic microbiota, and plasma metabolites were examined two weeks later. We employed 16S rRNA sequence and untargeted metabolomic analyses to explore the changes in colonic microbiota and plasma metabolites and their relationship with tubulointerstitial fibrosis (TIF). The UUO rats exhibited tubular atrophy and dilatation, interstitial fibrosis and inflammatory cell infiltration in the obstructed kidney. UUO rats showed significant colonic enrichment and depletion of genera. Significant differences were identified in 219 plasma metabolites involved in lipid, amino acid, and bile acid metabolism, which were consistent with gut microbiota-related metabolism. Interestingly, tryptophan and its metabolites kynurenine, 5-hydroxytryptophan and 5-hydroxytryptamine levels, which were linked with TIF, correlated with nine specific genera. Plasma tryptophan level was positively correlated with Clostridium IV, Turicibacter, Pseudomonas and Lactobacillales, and negatively correlated with Oscillibacter, Blautia, and Intestinimonas, which possess the genes encoding tryptophan synthase (K16187), indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (K00463) and tryptophan 2,3-dioxygenase (K00453) and their corresponding enzymes (EC:18.104.22.168 and EC:22.214.171.124) that exacerbate TIF. In conclusion, UUO results in profound changes in the gut microbiome and circulating metabolites, events that contribute to the pathogenesis of inflammation and TIF.
- Mutually Orthogonal Nonsense-Suppression Systems and Conjugation Chemistries for Precise Protein Labeling at up to Three Distinct Sites. [Journal Article]
- JAJ Am Chem Soc 2019 Apr 17; 141(15):6204-6212
- Site-specific incorporation of multiple distinct noncanonical amino acids (ncAAs) into a protein is an emerging technology with tremendous potential. It relies on mutually orthogonal engineered amino…
Site-specific incorporation of multiple distinct noncanonical amino acids (ncAAs) into a protein is an emerging technology with tremendous potential. It relies on mutually orthogonal engineered aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase/tRNA pairs that suppress different nonsense/frameshift codons. So far, up to two distinct ncAAs have been incorporated into proteins expressed in E. coli, using archaea-derived tyrosyl and pyrrolysyl pairs. Here we report that the E. coli derived tryptophanyl pair can be combined with the archaeal tyrosyl or the pyrrolysyl pair in ATMW1 E. coli to incorporate two different ncAAs into one protein with high fidelity and efficiency. By combining all three orthogonal pairs, we further demonstrate simultaneous site-specific incorporation of three different ncAAs into one protein. To use this technology for chemoselectively labeling proteins with multiple distinct entities at predefined sites, we also sought to identify different bioconjugation handles that can be coincorporated into proteins as ncAA-side chains and subsequently functionalized through mutually compatible labeling chemistries. To this end, we show that the recently developed chemoselective rapid azo-coupling reaction (CRACR) directed to 5-hydroxytryptophan (5HTP) is compatible with strain-promoted azide-alkyne cycloaddition (SPAAC) targeted to p-azidophenylalanine (pAzF) and strain-promoted inverse electron-demand Diels-Alder cycloaddition (SPIEDAC) targeted to cyclopropene-lysine (CpK) for rapid, catalyst-free protein labeling at multiple sites. Combining these mutually orthogonal nonsense suppression systems and the mutually compatible bioconjugation handles they incorporate, we demonstrate site-specific labeling of recombinantly expressed proteins at up to three distinct sites.
- Analysis of metabolic changes in Trichoderma asperellum TJ01 at different fermentation time-points by LC-QQQ-MS. [Journal Article]
- JEJ Environ Sci Health B 2019; 54(1):20-26
- Trichoderma spp. are among the most widely recognized biocontrol fungi used to inhibit pathogens and promote plant growth. These functions are related to primary and secondary metabolites. This study…
Trichoderma spp. are among the most widely recognized biocontrol fungi used to inhibit pathogens and promote plant growth. These functions are related to primary and secondary metabolites. This study investigated the different metabolites in Trichoderma asperellum TJ01 cultured for 24 and 72 h using liquid chromatography with triple-quadrupole mass spectrometry. Compared to the 24 h culture of T. asperellum TJ01, the 72 h culture with amino acid metabolism tended to decrease while sugar and lipid metabolisms tended to increase. Furthermore, the 72 h culture had a higher proportion of upregulated flavonoids, in combination with a higher proportion of downregulated alkaloids, and equal proportions of upregulated and downregulated polyphenols and hormones. This study also identified a few valuable medicinal substances such as trigonelline and 5-hydroxytryptophan in T. asperellum TJ01 fermentation cultures.
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- L-Dopa decarboxylase interaction with the major signaling regulator ΡΙ3Κ in tissues and cells of neural and peripheral origin. [Journal Article]
- BBiochimie 2019; 160:76-87
- L-Dopa decarboxylase (DDC) catalyzes the decarboxylation of L-Dopa to dopamine and 5-hydroxytryptophan (5-HTP) to serotonin. Although DDC has been purified from a variety of peripheral organs, includ…
L-Dopa decarboxylase (DDC) catalyzes the decarboxylation of L-Dopa to dopamine and 5-hydroxytryptophan (5-HTP) to serotonin. Although DDC has been purified from a variety of peripheral organs, including the liver, kidney and pancreas, the physiological significance of the peripherally expressed enzyme is not yet fully understood. DDC has been considered as a potential novel biomarker for various types of cancer, however, the role of DDC in the development of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) remains to be evaluated. Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K), on the other hand, has been shown to play a key role in the tumorigenesis, proliferation, metastasis, apoptosis, and angiogenesis of HCC by regulating gene expression. We initially identified the interaction of DDC with PI3K by means of the phage display methodology. This association was further confirmed in human hepatocellular carcinoma cell lines, human embryonic kidney cells, human neuroblastoma cells, as well as mouse brain, by the use of specific antibodies raised against DDC and PI3K. Functional aspects of the above interaction were studied upon treatment with the DDC inhibitor carbidopa and the PI3K inhibitor LY294002. Interestingly, our data demonstrate the expression of the neuronal type DDC mRNA in HCC cells. The present investigation provides new evidence on the possible link of DDC with the PI3K pathway, underlining the biological significance of this complex enzyme.