- Guest editors' introduction to the special section: Cultural adaptation of mental health interventions for Americans of East Asian descent. [Journal Article]
- AJAm J Orthopsychiatry 2019; 89(4):458-461
- Overall, this special section makes a timely and significant contribution to providing various types of culturally specific interventions as well as the evidence of clinical trials. Although the samp…
Overall, this special section makes a timely and significant contribution to providing various types of culturally specific interventions as well as the evidence of clinical trials. Although the sample size of each study is rather small, each intervention illustrates innovative methods in both reaching and treating underserved and understudied populations. Moreover, these interventions provide critical groundwork for building an evidence base of interventions tailored specifically to Asian Americans (AAs). These articles demonstrate the significance of development and testing of culturally adapted or culturally grounded interventions for intervention science that effectively treat and engage culturally diverse and hard-to-reach populations. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2019 APA, all rights reserved).
- Sleep-related attitudes, beliefs, and practices among an urban-dwelling African American community: a qualitative study. [Journal Article]
- SHSleep Health 2019 Jul 11
- CONCLUSIONS: A cycle of stress/disruptive environment, stress, rumination at night, and coping by use of electronics and daytime napping may perpetuate sleep disparities in this community. Results suggest that sleep-related interventions should include stress reduction and environmental improvements in addition to the typical sleep hygiene-related behavioral recommendations.
- Anabolic steroid users' misuse of non-traditional prescription drugs. [Journal Article]
- RSRes Social Adm Pharm 2019; 15(8):949-952
- CONCLUSIONS: AAS users practice polypharmacy and misuse multiple prescription drugs. These findings allow researchers and clinicians to be more knowledgeable and to anticipate potential misuse of prescription medications that traditionally are not thought to be abused.
- Assessment of cytotoxicity and antibacterial effects of silver nanoparticle-doped titanium alloy surfaces. [Journal Article]
- DMDent Mater 2019 Jul 10
- CONCLUSIONS: This study sheds light to the optimal size-related concentrations of AgNP-doped Ti6Al4V surfaces to achieve antibacterial effects, without subsequent cytotoxicity. These results significantly contribute to the development of antibacterial surfaces for application in oral implantology.
- Formation of odorous by-products during chlorination of major amino acids in East Taihu Lake: Impacts of UV, UV/PS and UV/H2O2 pre-treatments. [Journal Article]
- WRWater Res 2019 Jul 05; 162:427-436
- Certain amino acids (AAs) can form odorous aldehydes, nitriles and N-chloroaldimines during chlorination. Ultraviolet (UV) photolysis, ultraviolet/persulfate (UV/PS) and ultraviolet/hydrogen peroxide…
Certain amino acids (AAs) can form odorous aldehydes, nitriles and N-chloroaldimines during chlorination. Ultraviolet (UV) photolysis, ultraviolet/persulfate (UV/PS) and ultraviolet/hydrogen peroxide (UV/H2O2) treatments have been reported to decrease trace organic contaminants in drinking water. In this study, 20 common AAs in East Taihu (ET) Lake (the main drinking water source for the surrounding cities) were determined during one year (four seasons). The impacts of UV photolysis alone and two UV-advanced oxidation process (AOP) pre-treatments on the formation of aldehydes, nitriles and N-chloroaldimines during post-chlorination of water containing three of the most detected AAs (i.e. valine (Val), leucine (Leu) and isoleucine (Ile)) in ET Lake were investigated. Results showed that the two UV-AOPs significantly decreased the odorous by-product formation from AAs compared with UV photolysis alone. The formation of N-chloroaldimines was more easily controlled than that of aldehyde and nitrile. Furthermore, UV/H2O2 was more effective than UV/PS at pH = 5 and 7. At pH = 9, the two UV-AOPs had similar effects and did not perform very well. In addition, the UV-AOPs controlled the formation of odorous by-products effectively at Cl/AA (molar ratio of chlorine to amino acid) ratios of 2.4 and 3.0 but increased their formation at Cl/AA ratios of 0.8 and 1.2. Experiments in real water showed that UV/H2O2 was more suitable for controlling the off-flavor problem caused by chlorination of AAs in ET Lake.
- Knowledge of and Attitudes Toward the Use of Anabolic-Androgenic Steroids among the Population of Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. [Journal Article]
- JMJ Microsc Ultrastruct 2019 Apr-Jun; 7(2):78-83
- CONCLUSIONS: The results showed poor knowledge regarding using AASs among the population of Jeddah. Thus, we recommend having a national awareness program in order to prevent the possible side effects of misusing AASs.
- Aquatic microbial diversity associated with faecal pollution of Norwegian waterbodies characterized by 16S rRNA gene amplicon deep sequencing. [Journal Article]
- MBMicrob Biotechnol 2019 Jul 09
- Faecal contamination is one of the major factors affecting biological water quality. In this study, we investigated microbial taxonomic diversity of faecally polluted lotic ecosystems in Norway. Thes…
Faecal contamination is one of the major factors affecting biological water quality. In this study, we investigated microbial taxonomic diversity of faecally polluted lotic ecosystems in Norway. These ecosystems comprise tributaries of drinking water reservoirs with moderate and high faecal contamination levels, an urban creek exposed to extremely high faecal pollution and a rural creek that was the least faecally polluted. The faecal water contamination had both anthropogenic and zoogenic origins identified through quantitative microbial source tracking applying host-specific Bacteroidales 16S rRNA genetic markers. The microbial community composition revealed that Proteobacteria and Bacteroidetes (70-90% relative abundance) were the most dominant bacterial phyla, followed by Firmicutes, especially in waters exposed to anthropogenic faecal contamination. The core archaeal community consisted of Parvarchaeota (mainly in the tributaries of drinking water reservoirs) and Crenarchaeota (in the rural creek). The aquatic microbial diversity was substantially reduced in water with severe faecal contamination. In addition, the community compositions diverge between waters with dominant anthropogenic or zoogenic pollution origins. These findings present novel interpretations of the effect of anthropo-zoogenic faecal water contamination on microbial diversity in lotic ecosystems.
- High sense of mastery reduces psychological distress for African American women but not African American men. [Journal Article]
- AGArch Gen Intern Med 2019; 3(1):5-9
- Recent research has suggested that relative to Whites, African Americans (AAs) may be at a systemic disadvantage regarding the health effects of socioeconomic position (SEP) indicators as well as psy…
Recent research has suggested that relative to Whites, African Americans (AAs) may be at a systemic disadvantage regarding the health effects of socioeconomic position (SEP) indicators as well as psychological assets (e.g., sense of mastery). However, less is known about how these diminished returns differ between AA men and women. This study tested whether AA men and women differ in the mental health effects of high sense of mastery. The National Survey of American Life (NSAL, 2003) recruited 3570 AA adults who were either female (n = 2299) or male (n = 1271). Dependent variable was psychological distress. Independent variable was sense of mastery. Gender was the focal moderator. Age and educational attainment were the covariates. Multiple linear regression model was applied for statistical analysis. Overall, high sense of mastery was associated with lower psychological distress. Significant interaction was found between gender and sense of mastery on psychological distress suggestive of a stronger association for AA women compared to men. A smaller mental health gain of high sense of mastery for AA men compared to AA women is indicative of within race heterogeneity regarding diminished returns. Racism and discrimination may be why high sense of mastery does not translate to mental health gain for AA men.
- Amino-acid inserts of HIV-1 capsid (CA) induce CA degradation and abrogate viral infectivity: Insights for the dynamics and mechanisms of HIV-1 CA decomposition. [Journal Article]
- SRSci Rep 2019 Jul 08; 9(1):9806
- Accumulation of amino acid (AA) insertions/substitutions are observed in the Gag-protein of HIV-1 variants resistant to HIV-1 protease inhibitors. Here, we found that HIV-1 carrying AA insertions in …
Accumulation of amino acid (AA) insertions/substitutions are observed in the Gag-protein of HIV-1 variants resistant to HIV-1 protease inhibitors. Here, we found that HIV-1 carrying AA insertions in capsid protein (CA) undergoes aberrant CA degradation. When we generated recombinant HIV-1s (rHIV-1s) containing 19-AAs in Gag, such insertions caused significant CA degradation, which initiated in CA's C-terminal. Such rHIV-1s had remarkable morphological abnormality, decreased infectivity, and no replicative ability, which correlated with levels of CA degradation. The CA degradation observed was energy-independent and had no association with cellular/viral proteolytic mechanisms, suggesting that the CA degradation occurs due to conformational/structural incompatibility caused by the 19-AA insertions. The incorporation of degradation-prone CA into the wild-type CA resulted in significant disruption of replication competence in "chimeric" virions. The data should allow better understanding of the dynamics and mechanisms of CA decomposition/degradation and retroviral uncoating, which may lead to new approach for antiretroviral modalities.
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- On the Effect of Aqueous Ammonia Soaking Pre-Treatment on Continuous Anaerobic Digestion of Digested Swine Manure Fibers. [Journal Article]
- MMolecules 2019 Jul 05; 24(13)
- CONCLUSIONS: The methane yield of AAS-treated digested fibers under continuous operation was 49-68% higher than that calculated in batch experiments in the past. It was found that AAS treatment had a profound effect mainly on the disintegration/hydrolysis rate of particulate carbohydrates. Comparison of the data obtained in the present study with the data obtained with AAS-pre-treated raw manure fibers in the past revealed that hydrolysis kinetics after AAS pre-treatment were similar for both types of biomasses.