- Gastrointestinal Hormones in Regulation of Memory. [Review]
- PPeptides 2018 Feb 18
- The connection between the gastrointestinal hormones and the brain has been established many years ago. This relation is termed the gut-brain axis (GBA). The GBA is a bidirectional communication whic...
The connection between the gastrointestinal hormones and the brain has been established many years ago. This relation is termed the gut-brain axis (GBA). The GBA is a bidirectional communication which not only regulates gastrointestinal homeostasis but is also linked with higher emotional and cognitive functions. Hypothalamus plays a critical role in the regulation of energy metabolism, nutrient partitioning and control of feeding behaviors. Various gut hormones are released inside the gastrointestinal tract on food intake. These hormones act peripherally and influence the different responses of the tissues to the food intake, but do also have effects on the brain. The hypothalamus, in turn, integrates visceral function with limbic system structures such as hippocampus, amygdala, and cerebral cortex. The hippocampus has been known for its involvement in the cognitive function and the modulation of synaptic plasticity. This review aims to establish the role of various gut hormones in learning and memory, through the interaction of various receptors in the hippocampus. Understanding their role in memory can also aid in finding novel therapeutic strategies for the treatment of the neurological disorders associated with memory dysfunctions.
- Divergent effects of cold water immersion versus active recovery on skeletal muscle fiber type and angiogenesis in young men. [Journal Article]
- AJAm J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol 2018 Feb 21
- Resistance training (RT) increases muscle fiber size and induces angiogenesis to maintain capillary density. Cold water immersion (CWI), a common post-exercise recovery modality may improve acute rec...
Resistance training (RT) increases muscle fiber size and induces angiogenesis to maintain capillary density. Cold water immersion (CWI), a common post-exercise recovery modality may improve acute recovery, but it attenuates muscle hypertrophy compared with active recovery (ACT). It is unknown if CWI following RT alters muscle fiber type expression or angiogenesis. Twenty-one men strength trained for 12 weeks, with either 10 min of CWI (n=11) or ACT (n=10) performed following each session. Vastus lateralis biopsies were collected at rest before and after training. Type IIx myofiber % decreased (p=0.013) and type IIa myofiber % increased with training (p=0.012), with no difference between groups. The number of capillaries per-fiber increased from pre-training in the CWI group (p=0.004), but not the ACT group (p=0.955). Expression of myosin heavy chain genes (MYH1 and MYH2), encoding type IIx and IIa fibers respectively, decreased in the ACT group whereas MYH7 (encoding type I fibers) increased in the ACT group vs. CWI (p=0.004). MyHCIIa protein increased with training (p=0.012) with no difference between groups. The pro-angiogenic VEGF protein decreased post-training in the ACT group vs. CWI (p<0.001), whereas anti-angiogenic SPRED-1 protein increased with training in both groups (p=0.015). Expression of microRNAs that regulate muscle fiber type (miR-208b and -499a) and angiogenesis (miR-15a, -16 and -126) increased only in the ACT group (P<0.05). CWI recovery after each training session altered the angiogenic and fiber-type specific response to RT through regulation at the levels of microRNA, gene and protein expression.
- [Ants’ higher taxa as surrogates of species richness in a chronosequence of fallows, old-grown forests and agroforestry systems in the Eastern Amazon, Brazil]. [Journal Article]
- RBRev Biol Trop 2017; 65(1):279-91
- Deforestation in Amazon forests is one of the main causes for biodiversity loss worldwide. Ants are key into the ecosystem because act like engineers; hence, the loss of ants’ biodiversity may be a g...
Deforestation in Amazon forests is one of the main causes for biodiversity loss worldwide. Ants are key into the ecosystem because act like engineers; hence, the loss of ants’ biodiversity may be a guide to measure the loss of essential functions into the ecosystems. The aim of this study was to evaluate soil ant’s richness and to estimate whether higher taxa levels (Subfamily and Genus) can be used as surrogates of species richness in different vegetation types (fallows, old-growth forests and agroforestry systems) in Eastern Amazon. The samples were taken in 65 areas in the Maranhão and Pará States in the period 2011-2014. The sampling scheme followed the procedure of Tropical Soil Biology and Fertility (TSBF). Initially, the vegetation types were characterized according to their age and estimated species richness. Linear and exponential functions were applied to evaluate if higher taxa can be used as surrogates and correlated with the Pearson coefficient. In total, 180 species distributed in 60 genera were identified. The results showed that ant species richness was higher in intermediate fallows (88) and old secondary forest (76), and was lower in agroforestry systems (38) and mature riparian forest (35). The genus level was the best surrogate to estimate the ant’s species richness across the different vegetation types, and explained 72-97 % (P < 0.001) of the total species variability. The results confirmed that the genus level is an excellent surrogate to estimate the ant’s species richness in the region and that both fallows and agroforestry systems may contribute in the conservation of Eastern Amazon ant community.
- Molecular detection of Anaplasmataceae agents in Dasyprocta azarae in northeastern Brazil. [Journal Article]
- RBRev Bras Parasitol Vet 2018 Feb 19
- Recently, the importance of wild-living rodents for maintenance of pathogens of the family Anaplasmataceae in the environment was investigated. These mammals play a role as reservoirs for these patho...
Recently, the importance of wild-living rodents for maintenance of pathogens of the family Anaplasmataceae in the environment was investigated. These mammals play a role as reservoirs for these pathogens and act as hosts for the immature stages of tick vectors. The aim of the present study was to investigate the prevalence of Ehrlichia sp. and Anaplasma sp. in 24 specimens of Azara's agouti (Dasyprocta azarae) that had been trapped in the Itapiracó Environmental Reserve, in São Luís, Maranhão, northeastern Brazil, using molecular methods. Four animals (16.7%) were positive for Ehrlichia spp. in nested PCR assays based on the 16S rRNA gene. In a phylogenetic analysis based on the 16S rRNA gene, using the maximum likelihood method and the GTRGAMMA+I evolutionary model, Ehrlichia sp. genotypes detected in Azara's agoutis were found to be closely related to E. canis and to genotypes relating to E. canis that had previously been detected in free-living animals in Brazil. The present work showed the first molecular detection of Ehrlichia sp. in Azara's agoutis in Brazil.
- Analysis of aluminum toxicity in Hordeum vulgare roots with an emphasis on DNA integrity and cell cycle. [Journal Article]
- PlosPLoS One 2018; 13(2):e0193156
- Barley is one of the cereals that are most sensitive to aluminum (Al). Al in acid soils limits barley growth and development and, as a result, its productivity. The inhibition of root growth is a wid...
Barley is one of the cereals that are most sensitive to aluminum (Al). Al in acid soils limits barley growth and development and, as a result, its productivity. The inhibition of root growth is a widely accepted indicator of Al stress. Al toxicity is affected by many factors including the culture medium, pH, Al concentration and the duration of the treatment. However, Al can act differently in different species and still Al toxicity in barley deserves study. Since the mechanism of Al toxicity is discussed we cytogenetically describe the effects of different doses of bioavailable Al on the barley nuclear genome-mitotic activity, cell cycle profile and DNA integrity. At the same time, we tested an established deep-water culture (DWC) hydroponics system and analyzed the effects of Al on the root system parameters using WinRHIZO software. We demonstrated the cytotoxic and genotoxic effect of Al in barley root cells. We showed that Al treatment significantly reduced the mitotic activity of the root tip cells and it also induced micronuclei and damaged nuclei. The DNA-damaging effect of Al was observed using the TUNEL test. We define the inhibitory influence of Al on DNA replication in barley. Analysis with the labelling and detection of 5-ethynyl-2'-deoxyuridin (EdU) showed that the treatment with Al significantly decreased the frequency of S phase cells. We also demonstrated that Al exposure led to changes in the cell cycle profile of barley root tips. The delay of cell divisions observed as increased frequency of cells in G2/M phase after Al treatment was reported using flow cytometry.
- Impact of insulin on primary arcuate neurons culture is dependent on early-postnatal nutritional status and neuronal subpopulation. [Journal Article]
- PlosPLoS One 2018; 13(2):e0193196
- Nutrition plays a critical role in programming and shaping linear growth during early postnatal life through direct action on the development of the neuroendocrine somatotropic (GH/IGF-1) axis. IGF-1...
Nutrition plays a critical role in programming and shaping linear growth during early postnatal life through direct action on the development of the neuroendocrine somatotropic (GH/IGF-1) axis. IGF-1 is a key factor in modulating the programming of linear growth during this period. Notably, IGF-1 preferentially stimulates axonal growth of GHRH neurons in the arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus (Arc), which is crucial for the proliferation of somatotroph progenitors in the pituitary, thus influencing later GH secretory capacity. However, other nutrition-related hormones may also be involved. Among them, insulin shares several structural and functional similarities with IGF-1, as well as downstream signaling effectors. We investigated the role of insulin in the control of Arc axonal growth using an in vitro model of arcuate explants culture and a cell-type specific approach (GHRH-eGFP mice) under both physiological conditions (normally fed pups) and those of dietary restriction (underfed pups). Our data suggest that insulin failed to directly control axonal growth of Arc neurons or influence specific IGF-1-mediated effects on GHRH neurons. Insulin may act on neuronal welfare, which appears to be dependent on neuronal sub-populations and is influenced by the nutritional status of pups in which Arc neurons develop.
- Environmental Temperature Controls Accumulation of Transacting siRNAs Involved in Heterochromatin Formation. [Journal Article]
- GGenes (Basel) 2018 Feb 21; 9(2)
- Genes or alleles can interact by small RNAs in a homology dependent manner meaning that short interfering (siRNAs) can act intransat the chromatin level producing stable and heritable silencing pheno...
Genes or alleles can interact by small RNAs in a homology dependent manner meaning that short interfering (siRNAs) can act intransat the chromatin level producing stable and heritable silencing phenotypes. Because of the puzzling data on endogenous paramutations, their impact contributing to adaptive evolution in a Lamarckian manner remains unknown. An increasing number of studies characterizes the underlying siRNA accumulation pathways using transgene experiments. Also in the ciliateParamecium tetraurelia, we inducetranssilencing on the chromatin level by injection of truncated transgenes. Here, we characterize the efficiency of this mechanism at different temperatures showing that silencing of the endogenous genes is temperature dependent. Analyzing different transgene constructs at different copy numbers, we dissected whether silencing efficiency is due to varying precursor RNAs or siRNA accumulation. Our data shows that silencing efficiency correlates with more efficient accumulation of primary siRNAs at higher temperatures rather than higher expression of precursor RNAs. Due to higher primary levels, secondary siRNAs also show temperature dependency and interestingly increase their relative proportion to primary siRNAs. Our data shows that efficienttranssilencing on the chromatin level inP. tetraureliadepends on environmental parameters, thus being an important epigenetic factor limiting regulatory effects of siRNAs.
- Project SITUP: An Interdisciplinary Quality Improvement Initiative to Reduce Aspiration Pneumonia. [Journal Article]
- JNJ Nurs Care Qual 2018 Apr/Jun; 33(2):116-122
- The purpose of this quality improvement initiative was to improve oropharyngeal dysphagia screening and reduce aspiration pneumonia rates on 3 inpatient hospital medical units. Guided by a Plan-Do-St...
The purpose of this quality improvement initiative was to improve oropharyngeal dysphagia screening and reduce aspiration pneumonia rates on 3 inpatient hospital medical units. Guided by a Plan-Do-Study-Act methodology, an interdisciplinary health team developed and implemented a systematic process for oropharyngeal dysphagia screening and management. As a result, use of the screening protocol increased, timely initiation of speech language pathology consultations increased, and aspiration pneumonia rates decreased.
- Ethical Dilemmas in Protecting Susceptible Subpopulations From Environmental Health Risks: Liberty, Utility, Fairness, and Accountability for Reasonableness. [Journal Article]
- AJAm J Bioeth 2018; 18(3):29-41
- Various U.S. laws, such as the Clean Air Act and the Food Quality Protection Act, require additional protections for susceptible subpopulations who face greater environmental health risks. The main e...
Various U.S. laws, such as the Clean Air Act and the Food Quality Protection Act, require additional protections for susceptible subpopulations who face greater environmental health risks. The main ethical rationale for providing these protections is to ensure that environmental health risks are distributed fairly. In this article, we (1) consider how several influential theories of justice deal with issues related to the distribution of environmental health risks; (2) show that these theories often fail to provide specific guidance concerning policy choices; and (3) argue that an approach to public decision making known as accountability for reasonableness can complement theories of justice in establishing acceptable environmental health risks for the general population and susceptible subpopulations. Since accountability for reasonableness focuses on the fairness of the decision-making process, not the outcome, it does not guarantee that susceptible subpopulations will receive a maximum level of protection, regardless of costs or other morally relevant considerations.
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- A GUIDE TO FOLLOW-ON BIOLOGICS AND BIOSIMILARS WITH A FOCUS ON INSULIN. [Journal Article]
- EPEndocr Pract 2018; 24(2):195-204
- CONCLUSIONS: Although they present several challenges in terms of regulation and acceptance, follow-on biologics have the potential to significantly reduce costs for patients requiring insulin therapy.