- Gene expression profiling in human corticotrope tumors reveals distinct, neuroendocrine profiles. [Journal Article]
- JNJ Neuroendocrinol 2018 Jun 19; :e12628
- ACTH-secreting pituitary adenomas give rise to a severe endocrinological disorder, i.e., Cushing's disease, with multifaceted clinical presentation and treatment outcomes. Experimental studies sugges...
ACTH-secreting pituitary adenomas give rise to a severe endocrinological disorder, i.e., Cushing's disease, with multifaceted clinical presentation and treatment outcomes. Experimental studies suggested that disease variability is inherent to the pituitary tumor, thus pointing to the need for further studies into tumor biology. Aim of the present study was to evaluate transcriptome expression pattern in a large series of ACTH-secreting pituitary adenoma specimens, in order to identify molecular signatures of these tumors. Gene expression profiling of formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded specimens from 40 human ACTH-secreting pituitary adenomas revealed significant expression of genes involved in protein biosynthesis and ribosomal function, in keeping with neuroendocrine cell profile. Unsupervised cluster analysis identified three distinct gene profile clusters and several genes were uniquely overexpressed in a given cluster, accounting for different molecular signatures. Of note, gene expression profiles were associated with clinical features such as age and size of the tumor. Altogether, our study shows that corticotrope tumors are characterized by neuroendocrine gene expression profile and present subgroup-specific molecular features. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
- Refractory hypotension due to Nivolumab-induced adrenal insufficiency. [Journal Article]
- NJNagoya J Med Sci 2018; 80(2):285-288
- Nivolumab, a new immune checkpoint inhibitor that has been found to improve outcomes for patients with some advanced cancers, is being increasingly used. Immune checkpoint inhibitors can cause immune...
Nivolumab, a new immune checkpoint inhibitor that has been found to improve outcomes for patients with some advanced cancers, is being increasingly used. Immune checkpoint inhibitors can cause immune-related adverse events, including dermatitis, enterocolitis, hepatitis and hypophysitis, but adrenal insufficiency rarely occurs. We present a case of Nivolumab-induced adrenal insufficiency in a man who complained of refractory hypotension. A 52-year-old man with non-small cell lung cancer visited our emergency department complaining of fatigue and diarrhea. He had received Nivolumab every 2 weeks as third-line therapy for a total of 10 times. On arrival, his vital signs revealed shock: blood pressure, 68/48 mmHg; heart rate, 141 beats per minutes. Laboratory examination showed severe hemoconcentration with a hemoglobin level of 19.9 g/dL, normal electrolyte levels and hyperglycemia. We started intravenous infusion of 4.5 L of extracellular fluid, but his vital signs remained unstable. After admission, endocrine examination revealed abnormally low values of serum cortisol (4.86 μg/dL) and ACTH (<1.0 pg/mL), which had been normal at 2 months before admission (21.14 μg/dL and 20.1 pg/mL, respectively). We therefore made a diagnosis of adrenal insufficiency induced by Nivolumab and administered 100 mg hydrocortisone succinate sodium intravenously. He recovered soon after hydrocortisone replacement therapy. Nivolumab is a new immune checkpoint inhibitor and general physicians are not familiar with it. However, adverse events caused by Nivolumab, especially adrenal insufficiency, can lead to serious adverse outcomes if overlooked. We should recognize Nivolumab-induced adrenal insufficiency and administer a glucocorticoid immediately in cancer patients treated with immune checkpoint inhibitors.
- Neoplasms of the Neuroendocrine Pancreas: An Update in the Classification, Definition, and Molecular Genetic Advances. [Journal Article]
- AAAdv Anat Pathol 2018 Jun 14
- This review focuses on discussing the main modifications of the recently published 2017 WHO Classification of Neoplasms of the Neuroendocrine Pancreas (panNEN). Recent updates separate pancreatic neu...
This review focuses on discussing the main modifications of the recently published 2017 WHO Classification of Neoplasms of the Neuroendocrine Pancreas (panNEN). Recent updates separate pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors into 2 broad categories: well-differentiated pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (panNET) and poorly differentiated pancreatic neuroendocrine carcinoma (panNEC), and incorporates a new subcategory of "well-differentiated high-grade NET (G3)" to the well-differentiated NET category. This new classification algorithm aims to improve the prediction of clinical outcomes and survival and help clinicians select better therapeutic strategies for patient care and management. In addition, these neuroendocrine neoplasms are capable of producing large quantity of hormones leading to clinical hormone hypersecretion syndromes. These functioning tumors include, insulinomas, glucagonomas, somatostatinomas, gastrinomas, VIPomas, serotonin-producing tumors, and ACTH-producing tumors. Although most panNENs arise as sporadic diseases, a subset of these heterogeneous tumors present as parts on inherited genetic syndromes, such as multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1, von Hippel-Lindau, neurofibromatosis type 1, tuberous sclerosis, and glucagon cell hyperplasia and neoplasia syndromes. Characteristic clinical and morphologic findings for certain functioning and syndromic panNENs should alert both pathologists and clinicians as appropriate patient management and possible genetic counseling may be necessary.
- Familial Forms of Cushing Syndrome in Primary Pigmented Nodular Adrenocortical Disease Presenting with Short Stature and Insidious Symptoms: A Clinical Series. [Journal Article]
- HRHorm Res Paediatr 2018 Jun 15; :1-11
- Cushing syndrome (CS) is a rare disease in children, frequently associated with subtle or periodic symptoms that may delay its diagnosis. Weight gain and growth failure, the hallmarks of hypercortiso...
Cushing syndrome (CS) is a rare disease in children, frequently associated with subtle or periodic symptoms that may delay its diagnosis. Weight gain and growth failure, the hallmarks of hypercortisolism in pediatrics, may be inconsistent, especially in ACTH-independent forms of CS. Primary pigmented nodular adrenocortical disease (PPNAD) is the rarest form of ACTH-independent CS, and can be associated with endocrine and nonendocrine tumors, forming the Carney complex (CNC). Recently, phenotype/genotype correlations have been described with particular forms of CNC where PPNAD is isolated or associated only with skin lesions. We present four familial series of CS due to isolated PPNAD, and compare them to available data from the literature. We discuss the clinical and molecular findings, and underline challenges in diagnosing PPNAD in childhood.
- Acute Pericarditis as a Presentation of Adrenal Insufficiency. [Journal Article]
- CCureus 2018 Apr 13; 10(4):e2474
- Acute pericarditis as a presenting sign of adrenal insufficiency is rarely reported. We present a rare case that highlights pericarditis as a clinical presentation of secondary adrenal insufficiency ...
Acute pericarditis as a presenting sign of adrenal insufficiency is rarely reported. We present a rare case that highlights pericarditis as a clinical presentation of secondary adrenal insufficiency later complicated by cardiac tamponade. A 44-year-old lady who presented to the hospital with a one-day history of pleuritic chest pain and shortness of breath. In the emergency room, she had a blood pressure of 70/35 mmHg. Laboratory evaluation revealed white blood cell count of 16.08 k/cumm with neutrophilia, normal renal function and elevated troponin (0.321 ng/mL, normal 0.000-0.028). An electrocardiogram (EKG) showed sinus tachycardia, low voltage, PR suppression and ST changes consistent with acute pericarditis. Echocardiogram showed small pericardial effusion without tamponade physiology. Infectious workup was negative; she was thought to have acute adrenal insufficiency likely secondary to viral pericarditis. We treated the patient with high dose nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDS) and hydrocortisone. Three weeks later, she presented to emergency room with complaints of persistent nausea, vomiting, chills, weakness. Her blood pressure was 49/23 mmHg. Random serum cortisol level was <1.2 mcg/dl (normal A.M. specimens 3.7-19.4 mcg/dl). Echocardiogram showed loculated pericardial fluid adjacent to the right ventricle with echocardiographic evidence of tamponade. Emergent pericardiocentesis yielded 250 ml of straw color fluid. Blood pressure improved after the procedure. The patient was initially started on IV stress dose steroids, but following clinical stabilization, hydrocortisone was switched to a physiological dose of 15 mg in am and 10 mg in pm. Although the mechanism of pericarditis in adrenal failure is unknown, this clinical presentation may help early diagnosis of adrenal failure and pericarditis. Early recognition and prompt treatment of this rare presentation are critical to prevent morbidity and mortality.
- PITUITARY PARS INTERMEDIA DYSFUNCTION (EQUINE CUSHING'S DISEASE) IN NONDOMESTIC EQUIDS AT MARWELL WILDLIFE: A CASE SERIES. ONE CHAPMAN'S ZEBRA ( EQUUS QUAGGA CHAPMANI) AND FIVE PRZEWALSKI's HORSES ( EQUUS FERUS PRZEWALSKII). [Journal Article]
- JZJ Zoo Wildl Med 2018; 49(2):404-411
- Pituitary pars intermedia dysfunction (PPID), also known as equine Cushing's disease, is widely reported in middle-aged to older domestic equids but to date reported in only one nondomestic equid, ...
Pituitary pars intermedia dysfunction (PPID), also known as equine Cushing's disease, is widely reported in middle-aged to older domestic equids but to date reported in only one nondomestic equid, the onager ( Equus hemionus onager). This case series reports clinical, hematological, and pathological findings consistent with PPID in two further equid species: one Chapman's zebra ( Equus quagga chapmani) and five Przewalski's horses ( Equus ferus przewalskii). The case series reports basal adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) testing as a method to diagnose and monitor PPID in zoological equids and the use of pergolide mesylate to reduce basal ACTH concentration and reduce clinical signs associated with PPID. Gross and histopathological examinations of the pituitary gland in four of these cases revealed either pars intermedia adenomas or adenomatous hyperplasia, similar to pathological findings in domestic equids affected by PPID. These findings suggest that clinicians working with nondomestic equids should be aware of this condition and consider screening for it routinely, particularly given that improvements in management and veterinary care for exotic animals are resulting in a more aged captive population. Early diagnosis and treatment of PPID may prevent the development of painful clinical sequelae and therefore improve the welfare of zoo equids.
- Impact of aldosterone-producing cell clusters on diagnostic discrepancies in primary aldosteronism. [Journal Article]
- OOncotarget 2018 May 25; 9(40):26007-26018
- Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) stimulation is recommended in adrenal vein sampling (AVS) for primary aldosteronism (PA) to improve the AVS success rate. However, this method can confound the subt...
Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) stimulation is recommended in adrenal vein sampling (AVS) for primary aldosteronism (PA) to improve the AVS success rate. However, this method can confound the subtype diagnosis. Gene mutations or pathological characteristics may be related to lateralization by AVS. This study aimed to compare the rate of diagnostic discrepancy by AVS pre- versus post-ACTH stimulation and to investigate the relationship between this discrepancy and findings from immunohistochemical and genetic analyses of PA. We evaluated 195 cases of AVS performed in 2011-2017. All surgical specimens were analyzed genetically and immunohistochemically. Based on the criteria, AVS was successful in 158 patients both pre- and post-ACTH; of these patients, 75 showed diagnostic discrepancies between pre- and post-ACTH. Thus, 19 patients underwent unilateral adrenalectomy, of whom 16 had an aldosterone-producing adenoma (APA) that was positive for CYP11B2 immunostaining. Of them, 10 patients had discordant lateralization between pre- and post-ACTH. In the genetic analysis, the rate of somatic mutations was not significantly different between APA patients with versus without a diagnostic discrepancy. In the immunohistochemical analysis, CYP11B2 levels and the frequency of aldosterone-producing cell clusters (APCCs) in APAs were almost identical between patients with versus without a diagnostic discrepancy. However, both the number and summed area of APCCs in APAs were significantly smaller in patients with concordant results than in those whose diagnosis changed to bilateral PA post-ACTH stimulation. In conclusion, lateralization by AVS was affected by APCCs in the adjacent gland, but not by APA-related factors such as somatic gene mutations.
- [Canine hypoadrenocorticism - an update on pathogenesis, diagnosis and treatment]. [Journal Article]
- TPTierarztl Prax Ausg K Kleintiere Heimtiere 2018; 46(3):163-175
- Canine hypoadrenocorticism (HoAC) results from a loss of functional adrenal cortex, the most common etiology of which is an immune-mediated destruction leading to an inadequate production of glucocor...
Canine hypoadrenocorticism (HoAC) results from a loss of functional adrenal cortex, the most common etiology of which is an immune-mediated destruction leading to an inadequate production of glucocorticoids and mineralocorticoids. The term "atypical" HoAC is used for a subgroup of dogs with either an isolated glucocorticoid deficiency or a combined glucocorticoid and mineralocorticoid deficiency but normal electrolytes. Dogs with HoAC can present with a large variety of clinical signs, ranging from shaking, weakness, and mild gastrointestinal signs to seizures, hypovolemic shock, and collapse. Routine clinicopathologic and diagnostic imaging findings are usually nonspecific and frequently mimic those of other common diseases. However, the absence of a stress leukogram, eosinophilia, hyponatremia, hyperkalemia, and azotemia and small adrenal glands on abdominal ultrasound are characteristic findings in dogs with HoAC. The ACTH stimulation test is currently the gold standard method for diagnosing HoAC. Other endocrine laboratory diagnostics, including the quantification of endogenous ACTH, basal and ACTH-stimulated aldosterone levels, cortisol:ACTH ratio, and aldosterone:renin ratio, may further aid in differentiating between primary, secondary, and "atypical" HoAC. Aggressive intravenous fluid therapy is the cornerstone of treatment in paients with an acute Addisonian crisis because it restores normovolemia and normal blood electrolytes. Maintenance therapy consists of glucocorticoid (e.g., prednisolone) and mineralocorticoid (e.g., des- oxycortone pivalate) supplementation and aims for stable electrolyte concentrations and a clinically well dog. The optimal dose of desoxy- cortone pivalate for a specific dog is determined based on blood so- dium and potassium concentrations by using a standardized protocol. Regular reevaluation of blood electrolytes is required for early identifi- cation of a mineralocorticoid deficiency in dogs with "atypical" HoAC. The long-term prognosis for dogs with HoAC is excellent provided that patients receive adequate treatment and there is good owner com- pliance.
- The hypothalamic pituitary adrenal axis in childhood cancer survivors. [Journal Article]
- EREndocr Relat Cancer 2018 Jun 12
- Endocrine abnormalities are common among childhood cancer survivors. Abnormalities of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPAA) are the least common, but the consequences are severe if missed. P...
Endocrine abnormalities are common among childhood cancer survivors. Abnormalities of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPAA) are the least common, but the consequences are severe if missed. Patients with tumours located and /or had surgery performed near the hypothalamic-pituitary region and those treated with an accumulative cranial radiotherapy dose of over 30 Gy are most at risk of adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH) deficiency. Primary adrenal insufficiency may occur in patients with tumours located in or involving one or both adrenals. The effects of adjunct therapies also need to be considered, particularly new immunotherapies. High dose and /or prolonged courses of glucocorticoid treatment can result in secondary adrenal insufficiency which may take months to resolve and hence re-assessment is important to ensure patients are not left on long-term replacement steroids inappropriately. The prevalence and cumulative incidences of HPAA dysfunction are difficult to quantify because of its non-specific presentation, and lack of consensus regarding its investigations. The insulin tolerance test remains the gold standard for the diagnosis of central cortisol deficiency, but due to its risks, alternative methods with reduced diagnostic sensitivities are often used and must be interpreted with caution. ACTH deficiency may develop many years after the completion of oncological treatment alongside other pituitary hormone deficiencies. It is essential that health professionals involved in the long term follow up of childhood cancer survivors are aware of individuals at risk of developing HPAA dysfunction and implement appropriate monitoring and treatment.
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- ACTH Gel in Resistant Focal Segmental Glomerulosclerosis after Kidney Transplantation. [Journal Article]
- TTransplantation 2018 Jun 12
- CONCLUSIONS: Although, the response varied among the recipients, ACTH gel might be an effective therapy for posttransplant resistant FSGS cases that fail to respond to therapeutic plasma exchange and rituximab.