- Ankle bracing practices in ambulatory, corticosteroid-naive boys with Duchenne muscular dystrophy. [Journal Article]Muscle Nerve 2019MN
- CONCLUSIONS: The basis for the variation in recommended AFO use is unknown and requires further study. Long-term follow-up of boys may permit assessment of the effects of AFO use. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
- Comparison of Gait Ability of a Child with Cerebral Palsy According to the Difference of Dorsiflexion Angle of Hinged Ankle-Foot Orthosis: A Case Report. [Journal Article]Am J Case Rep 2019; 20:1454-1459AJ
- CONCLUSIONS: The results of this study demonstrated that wearing a dorsiflexion 10° hinged AFO would have a positive effect on improving gait ability of a child with cerebral palsy rather than wearing a bare foot and a general hinged AFO.
- Effect of ankle-foot orthosis on functional mobility and dynamic balance of patients after stroke: Study protocol for a randomized controlled clinical trial. [Randomized Controlled Trial]Medicine (Baltimore) 2019; 98(39):e17317M
- CONCLUSIONS: The results of this study will contribute to clinical practice by identifying the type of AFO orthosis that is more suitable for this condition, helping to standardize prescription of these orthoses by professionals, and guiding future research studies on this subject, which is still incompletely defined in the literature.
- Estimated time-varying exposures to air emissions from animal feeding operations and childhood asthma. [Journal Article]Int J Hyg Environ Health 2019IJ
- CONCLUSIONS: A simple metric of time-varying exposure to AFO emissions was correlated with daily outdoor ammonia levels. Children with asthma may be adversely affected by exposure to AFO emissions.
- Efficacy of different techniques of AFO construction for hemiplegia patients: A systematic review. [Review]Med J Islam Repub Iran 2019; 33:50MJ
- CONCLUSIONS: The findings of this review can help to develop guidelines for the best AFO reporting as an intervention and to prevent vagueness of results in the different types of AFOs.
- From fading novelty effects to emergent appreciation of Activity-based Flexible Offices: Comparing the individual, organisational and spatial adaptations in two case organisations. [Journal Article]Appl Ergon 2019; 81:102877AE
- Activity-based Flexible Offices (AFOs) are innovations in workspace design that have been increasingly implemented in organisations in recent years. There are conflicting research results on the long-term consequences of implementing AFOs. This paper investigates the changes (if any) that occur over time, in: 1) employee satisfaction with AFO solutions and perceived work support, 2) ways of worki…
Activity-based Flexible Offices (AFOs) are innovations in workspace design that have been increasingly implemented in organisations in recent years. There are conflicting research results on the long-term consequences of implementing AFOs. This paper investigates the changes (if any) that occur over time, in: 1) employee satisfaction with AFO solutions and perceived work support, 2) ways of working and using AFOs and 3) the AFO solution. Two organisations participated in the study. The data collection involved: (i) semi-structured interviews with 26 employees and (ii) process enquiries involving the collection of secondary data and interviews with facility management teams. The findings indicate that limited options for improving an AFO solution lead to lingering work environment problems. By contrast, modifying the solution through systematic processes based on employee feedback helped resolving the initial problems. Over time, this led to an increased appreciation and a sense of collective ownership of the AFO solution.
- COPD overdiagnosis in primary care: a UK observational study of consistency of airflow obstruction. [Journal Article]NPJ Prim Care Respir Med 2019; 29(1):33NP
- Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is heterogeneous, but persistent airflow obstruction (AFO) is fundamental to diagnosis. We studied AFO consistency from initial diagnosis and explored factors associated with absent or inconsistent AFO. This was a retrospective observational study using patient-anonymised routine individual data in Care and Health Information Analytics (CHIA) database.…
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is heterogeneous, but persistent airflow obstruction (AFO) is fundamental to diagnosis. We studied AFO consistency from initial diagnosis and explored factors associated with absent or inconsistent AFO. This was a retrospective observational study using patient-anonymised routine individual data in Care and Health Information Analytics (CHIA) database. Identifying a prevalent COPD cohort based on diagnostic codes in primary care records, we used serial ratios of forced expiratory volume in 1 s to forced vital capacity (FEV1/FVC%) from time of initial COPD diagnosis to assign patients to one of three AFO categories, according to whether all (persistent), some (variable) or none (absent) were <70%. We described respiratory prescriptions over 3 years (2011-2013) and used multivariable logistic regression to estimate odds of absent or variable AFO and potential predictors. We identified 14,378 patients with diagnosed COPD (mean ± SD age 68.8 ± 10.7 years), median (IQR) COPD duration of 60 (25,103) months. FEV1/FVC% was recorded in 12,491 (86.9%) patients: median (IQR) 5 (3, 7) measurements. Six thousand five hundred and fifty (52.4%) had persistent AFO, 4507 (36.1%) variable AFO and 1434 (11.5%) absent AFO. Being female, never smoking, having higher BMI or more comorbidities significantly predicted absent and variable AFO. Despite absent AFO, 57% received long-acting bronchodilators and 60% inhaled corticosteroids (50% and 49%, respectively, in those without asthma). In all, 13.1% of patients diagnosed with COPD had unrecorded FEV1/FVC%; 11.5% had absent AFO on repeated measurements, yet many received inhalers likely to be ineffective. Such prescribing is not evidence based and the true cause of symptoms may have been missed.
- Stiffness modification of two ankle-foot orthosis types to optimize gait in individuals with non-spastic calf muscle weakness - a proof-of-concept study. [Journal Article]J Foot Ankle Res 2019; 12:41JF
- CONCLUSIONS: Modifying AFO stiffness in individuals with non-spastic calf muscle weakness resulted in substantial differences in ankle biomechanics and walking energy cost with no effect on speed. Our results provide proof-of-concept that individually optimizing AFO stiffness can clinically beneficially improve gait performance.
- Wearing Time of Ankle-Foot Orthoses with Modular Shank Supply in Cerebral Palsy: A Descriptive Analysis in a Clinically Prospective Approach. [Journal Article]Rehabil Res Pract 2019; 2019:2978265RR
- CONCLUSIONS: The actual usage behavior of ankle-foot orthoses differs from the recommendations of the prescriber. This applies to both DAFOs and modular use with shank supplies. Environmental factors may have a significant impact on wearing times on weekdays and the weekend.
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- A review on the orthotics and prosthetics and the potential of kenaf composites as alternative materials for ankle-foot orthosis. [Review]J Mech Behav Biomed Mater 2019; 99:169-185JM
- Since ancient Egypt, orthosis was generally made from wood and then later replaced with metal and leather which are either heavy, bulky, or thick decreasing comfort among the wearers. After the age of revolution, the manufacturing of products using plastics and carbon composites started to spread due to its low cost and form-fitting feature whereas carbon composite were due to its high strength/s…
Since ancient Egypt, orthosis was generally made from wood and then later replaced with metal and leather which are either heavy, bulky, or thick decreasing comfort among the wearers. After the age of revolution, the manufacturing of products using plastics and carbon composites started to spread due to its low cost and form-fitting feature whereas carbon composite were due to its high strength/stiffness to weight ratio. Both plastic and carbon composite has been widely applied into medical devices such as the orthosis and prosthesis. However, carbon composite is also quite expensive, making it the less likely material to be used as an Ankle-Foot Orthosis (AFO) material whereas plastics has low strength. Kenaf composite has a high potential in replacing all the current materials due to its flexibility in controlling the strength to weight ratio properties, cost-effectiveness, abundance of raw materials, and biocompatibility. The aim of this review paper is to discuss on the possibility of using kenaf composite as an alternative material to fabricate orthotics and prosthetics. The discussion will be on the development of orthosis since ancient Egypt until current era, the existing AFO materials, the problems caused by these materials, and the possibility of using a Kenaf fiber composite as a replacement of the current materials. The results show that Kenaf composite has the potential to be used for fabricating an AFO due to its tensile strength which is almost similar to polypropylene's (PP) tensile strength, and the cheap raw material compared to other type of materials.