- "It Was Not My Aim to Sleep There": The Impact of Timing and Location of Sex on Adherence to Coitally-Dependent HIV Pre-exposure Prophylaxis. [Journal Article]
- ABAIDS Behav 2018 Jun 16
- The FACTS 001 trial found that vaginal pre- and post-coital application of 1% tenofovir gel did not prevent HIV-1 infection amongst young South African women. The trial included a multi-faceted appro...
The FACTS 001 trial found that vaginal pre- and post-coital application of 1% tenofovir gel did not prevent HIV-1 infection amongst young South African women. The trial included a multi-faceted approach to adherence support and collected objective and self-reported adherence measures. Using qualitative data collected from a random sub-set of FACTS 001 participants (135 in-depth interviews at product discontinuation and 13 focus group discussions at dissemination of trial results), we explore the importance of 'place' and 'timing' in shaping acts of sexual intimacy and product adherence. Demographically, this qualitative sub-sample is similar to the trial cohort of predominantly young, unemployed women living with parents or other family members. Sexual intimacy was largely unpredictable and happened across multiple locations in which women had limited privacy, autonomy, or control over the timing of sex. This made adherence to the dosing strategy challenging. Findings may inform the development of future event-driven pre-exposure prophylaxis regimens or products.
- Stigma, Depression, and Substance Use Problems Among Perinatally HIV-Infected Youth in South Africa. [Journal Article]
- ABAIDS Behav 2018 Jun 16
- A growing population of youth who acquired HIV from their mothers are surviving into adulthood. This group is unique in that they experience both internalized stigma (due to their HIV status) and ass...
A growing population of youth who acquired HIV from their mothers are surviving into adulthood. This group is unique in that they experience both internalized stigma (due to their HIV status) and associative stigma (due to their mothers' HIV status). Results of a cross-sectional survey of 250 perinatally HIV-infected South African youth suggests that internalized stigma is associated with greater risk of depression, and associative stigma is associated with greater risk of depression and substance use problems. Interventions currently focus on internalized stigma; this study highlights the importance of also addressing associative stigma to improve outcomes among perinatally HIV-infected youth.
- What insights do patients and caregivers have on acute kidney injury and posthospitalisation care? A single-centre qualitative study from Toronto, Canada. [Journal Article]
- BOBMJ Open 2018 Jun 15; 8(6):e021418
- CONCLUSIONS: Patients and caregivers view AKI as a short-term and reversible condition, giving it little thought during the postdischarge period. As a result, reliance on patients and caregivers to report an episode of AKI to their outpatient physicians is unlikely to be successful. Patient-centred tools and decision aids are needed to bridge the gap between a hospitalisation with AKI and the safe transition to the outpatient setting.
- Molecular mechanisms of bi-directional ion transport in the Malpighian tubules of a lepidopteran crop pest, Trichoplusia ni. [Journal Article]
- JIJ Insect Physiol 2018 Jun 14
- Classical studies have described in detail the complex and regionalized morphology of the Malpighian tubule (MT) in larval Lepidoptera. Recent studies revealed unusual aspects of ion transport in the...
Classical studies have described in detail the complex and regionalized morphology of the Malpighian tubule (MT) in larval Lepidoptera. Recent studies revealed unusual aspects of ion transport in the Malpighian tubules of the larva of the cabbage looper, Trichoplusia ni. These included: cation reabsorption via secondary cells (SC); coupling of SCs to neighbouring PCs via gap junctions to enable reabsorption; and a reversal from cation secretion to reabsorption by the principal cells in the distal ileac plexus region of the in situ tubule in response to dietary ion loading. The current paper aimed to identify molecular components of ion transport in the MTs of T. ni and to describe their role in the recently reported reversal of ion transport in ion-loaded animals. Using a combination of molecular, immunohistochemical and electrophysiological techniques, we assigned roles to Na+/K+-ATPase (NKA), V-type H+-ATPase (VA), Na+/K+/Cl- co-transporter (NKCC), K+/Cl- co-transporter (KCC), inward-rectifying K+ channel (Kir), and Na+/H+ exchangers (NHE)-7 and -8 in the transport of Na+ and K+ by the distal ileac plexus of T. ni. The yellow region of the tubule lacked all of the above except VA, and the white region lacked all of the above transporters but expressed an amiloride-sensitive Na+ channel (NaC). Overall, the ion transport machinery in the distal ileac plexus of the T. ni tubule shows remarkable similarity to that in tubules of other groups of insects, yet this region transports ions very differently. Shutdown of secretory ATPases and utilisation of the same molecular machinery in the face of changing ion gradients may enable ion transport reversal in lepidopteran MTs. We propose that gap junction-based coupling of the two cell types likely aids in toggling between ion secretion and ion reabsorption in this segment.
- Managing aesthetic referrals in NHS Scotland: Outcomes from 1122 patients in the East of Scotland. [Journal Article]
- JPJ Plast Reconstr Aesthet Surg 2018 May 22
- The Adult Exceptional Aesthetic Referral Protocol (AEARP) encompasses a series of aesthetic procedures which, as they do not treat an underlying disease process, are not routinely available within th...
The Adult Exceptional Aesthetic Referral Protocol (AEARP) encompasses a series of aesthetic procedures which, as they do not treat an underlying disease process, are not routinely available within the National Health Service. Provision of these services can only be provided on an exceptional basis. In this prospective study, we evaluated the referral process and outcomes of 1122 patients referred under the AEARP over a 3.5-year period. Referrals were screened by a vetting panel comprising of a plastic surgeon, clinical nurse specialist, and clinical psychologist. Following initial vetting, supported patients underwent psychological assessment. Patients supported by psychology were assessed in clinic, and if deemed clinically suitable, were offered surgery. Overall, 20% (225/1122) of referrals were supported for surgery. Following primary vetting, 57% (640/1,122) of referrals were supported, 40% (197/492) of referrals to clinical psychology were supported, and 65% (225/345) of the remaining cases referred for consultation were supported for surgery. Unsupported referrals included those not fulfilling the referral guidelines or those with contraindications. The AEARP is simple and effective to implement, and has been instrumental in streamlining the referral-to-outcome process in a centralised, transparent, and fair manner. It reduces a potential high number of clinic appointments where patients do not meet the aesthetic criteria and/or fail to attend - thereby helping to streamline other surgical pathways by improving clinic efficiency. Moreover, it aids referring clinicians and patient education around aesthetic issues including a holistic approach. Wide adoption of such standards may reduce waiting times, facilitate cost savings, and ultimately enhance patient outcomes.
- A programmatic approach to address increasing HIV diagnoses among Hispanic/Latino MSM, 2010-2014. [Review]
- PMPrev Med 2018 Jun 14
- From 2010 to 2015, young (13-24 years) Hispanic/Latino gay, bisexual and other men who have sex with men (MSM) experienced the largest increase (18%) in numbers of HIV diagnoses among all racial/ethn...
From 2010 to 2015, young (13-24 years) Hispanic/Latino gay, bisexual and other men who have sex with men (MSM) experienced the largest increase (18%) in numbers of HIV diagnoses among all racial/ethnic groups. In 2016, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) assembled a team of scientists and public health analysts to develop a programmatic approach for addressing the increasing HIV diagnosis among Hispanic/Latino MSM. The team used a data driven review process, i.e., comprehensive review of surveillance, epidemiologic, and programmatic data, to explore key questions from the literature on factors associated with HIV diagnoses among Hispanic/Latino MSM and to inform the approach. This paper describes key findings from the review and discusses the approach. The approach includes the following activities: increase awareness and support testing by expanding existing campaigns targeting Hispanic/Latino MSM to jurisdictions where diagnoses are increasing; strengthen existing efforts that support treatment as prevention and increase engagement in care and viral suppression among Hispanic/Latino MSM living with HIV and promote prevention, e.g., PrEP uptake and condom use, among Hispanic/Latino MSM who are at high-risk for HIV infection.
- Effects of cognitive and motor rehabilitation in non-convulsive status epilepticus: A case report. [Journal Article]
- JCJ Clin Neurosci 2018 Jun 13
- Epilepsy is a neurological disorder characterized by recurrent and unpredictable interruptions of normal brain function, that implies neurobiologic, psychological, and social consequences. Non-convul...
Epilepsy is a neurological disorder characterized by recurrent and unpredictable interruptions of normal brain function, that implies neurobiologic, psychological, and social consequences. Non-convulsive status epilepticus (NCSE) is an electro-clinical state associated to altered level of consciousness. In NCSE could occur the behavioural and emotional disorder, cognitive impairment and psychiatric disorder with a negative impact on quality of life and adaptive social behaviours. Cognitive rehabilitation for epileptic patients may include internal compensation strategies, external memory aids, psychoeducation, verbal and visual memory training, attention exercise and executive functions. We described the cognitive rehabilitation in a patient with NCSE characterized by an unusual cognitive impairment. A 55-year-old female patient, with epileptic seizures presented a severe impairment in cognitive function and focal neurological deficit. The cognitive treatment was designed as a combination of direct training of the impaired functions and metacognitive training to facilitate the development of compensatory strategies and it was divided into three methods. Neuropsychological evaluation showed a progressive deficit of high cognitive functions. The patient after cognitive rehabilitation, demonstrated a significant recovery of motor abilities, despite the neuro-cognitive profile was abnormal. Several advances have been made in this field but few studies on neuropsychological rehabilitation in adult patients with NCSE have been conducted and no standardized protocol or clinical guidelines are still available.
- Expression and purification of pneumococcal surface protein a of clade 4 in Escherichia coli using hydroxylapatite and ion-exchange column chromatography. [Journal Article]
- PEProtein Expr Purif 2018 Jun 13
- Streptococcus pneumoniae is a major pathogen that causes life-threatening diseases, such as pneumonia, otitis media, bacteremia, and meningitis, worldwide and especially in young children and the eld...
Streptococcus pneumoniae is a major pathogen that causes life-threatening diseases, such as pneumonia, otitis media, bacteremia, and meningitis, worldwide and especially in young children and the elderly. Pneumococcal surface protein A (PspA) is a widely studied candidate protein vaccine that represents a promising replacement for current polysaccharide and polysaccharide-conjugate vaccines. In this study, we describe a simple method to produce PspA of clade 4 from an Escherichia coli expression system using hydroxylapatite and ion-exchange chromatography. Using this method, we successfully expressed soluble PspA4 in 10 L of autoinducing culture medium, with a wet-cell yield of 19 g/L and a final PspA4 concentration of 22.8 mg/L. Additionally, we improved PspA4 purity from 17% to 70% in a single step through the use of hydroxylapatite, resulting in acquisition of recombinant PspA4 (>95% purity) at a final yield of 43% from the starting cell-lysis solution. We subsequently verified the secondary structure molecular weight of recombinant PspA4 by circular dichroism and mass spectrometry, respectively. These results demonstrated a highly efficient method for mass producing PspA4 protein and that can also be applied for purification of PspA proteins from other clades.
- Cheater-altruist synergy in public goods games. [Journal Article]
- JTJ Theor Biol 2018 Jun 13
- Much research has focused on the deleterious effects of free-riding in public goods games, and a variety of mechanisms that suppress cheating behavior. Here we argue that under certain conditions che...
Much research has focused on the deleterious effects of free-riding in public goods games, and a variety of mechanisms that suppress cheating behavior. Here we argue that under certain conditions cheating can be beneficial to the population. In a public goods game, cheaters do not pay for the cost of the public goods, yet they receive the benefit. Although this free-riding harms the entire population in the long run, the success of cheaters may aid the population when there is a common enemy that antagonizes both cooperators and cheaters. Here we study models of the interactions between tumor cells, which play a public goods game, and the immune system. We investigate three population dynamics models of cancer growth combined with a model of effector cell dynamics. We show that under a public good with a limiting benefit, the presence of cheaters aids the tumor in overcoming immune system suppression, and explore the parameter space wherein it occurs. The mechanism of this phenomenon is that a polymorphism of cheaters and altruists optimizes the average growth rate of the tumor, which is what determines whether or not the immune response is overcome. Our results give support for a possible synergy between cooperators and cheaters in ecological public goods games.
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- Adherence to antiretroviral therapy in HIV-positive, male intravenous drug users in Pakistan. [Journal Article]
- EMEast Mediterr Health J 2018 Jun 10; 24(3):237-242
- CONCLUSIONS: We conclude that adherence to ART among intravenous drug users was low. Family cohesion and support were essential to maintain adherence to ART.