- A Computational Model of the Self-Teaching Hypothesis Based on the Dual-Route Cascaded Model of Reading. [Journal Article]
- CSCogn Sci 2018 Mar 22
- The self-teaching hypothesis describes how children progress toward skilled sight-word reading. It proposes that children do this via phonological recoding with assistance from contextual cues, to id...
The self-teaching hypothesis describes how children progress toward skilled sight-word reading. It proposes that children do this via phonological recoding with assistance from contextual cues, to identify the target pronunciation for a novel letter string, and in so doing create an opportunity to self-teach new orthographic knowledge. We present a new computational implementation of self-teaching within the dual-route cascaded (DRC) model of reading aloud, and we explore how decoding and contextual cues can work together to enable accurate self-teaching under a variety of circumstances. The new model (ST-DRC) uses DRC's sublexical route and the interactivity between the lexical and sublexical routes to simulate phonological recoding. Known spoken words are activated in response to novel printed words, triggering an opportunity for orthographic learning, which is the basis for skilled sight-word reading. ST-DRC also includes new computational mechanisms for simulating how contextual information aids word identification, and it demonstrates how partial decoding and ambiguous context interact to achieve irregular-word learning. Beyond modeling orthographic learning and self-teaching, ST-DRC's performance suggests new avenues for empirical research on how difficult word classes such as homographs and potentiophones are learned.
- Markers of adiposity in HIV/AIDS patients: Agreement between waist circumference, waist-to-hip ratio, waist-to-height ratio and body mass index. [Journal Article]
- PlosPLoS One 2018; 13(3):e0194653
- CONCLUSIONS: Despite the observed linear association and correlation between these anthropometric parameters, the routine use of WC, WHR and WHtR as better predictors of cardio-metabolic risk should be encouraged in these patients, due to their minimal agreement with BMI in identifying HIV/AIDS patients with increased cardio-metabolic risk. HAART status does not appear to significantly affect the association between these anthropometric parameters.
- Sexual behavior experiences and characteristics of male-female partnerships among HIV positive adolescent girls and young women: Qualitative findings from Zimbabwe. [Journal Article]
- PlosPLoS One 2018; 13(3):e0194732
- CONCLUSIONS: Discussions highlighted the nature and characteristics of relationships between AGYW and their male sexual partners. Findings could inform interventions to engender risk perception among AGYW, promote female-controlled HIV prevention efforts and, foster risk-reduction among men.
- Bleeding and Blood Disorders in Clients of Voluntary Medical Male Circumcision for HIV Prevention - Eastern and Southern Africa, 2015-2016. [Journal Article]
- MMMMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 2018 Mar 23; 67(11):337-339
- Male circumcision reduces the risk for female-to-male human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) transmission by approximately 60% (1) and has become a key component of global HIV prevention programs in coun...
Male circumcision reduces the risk for female-to-male human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) transmission by approximately 60% (1) and has become a key component of global HIV prevention programs in countries in Eastern and Southern Africa where HIV prevalence is high and circumcision coverage is low. Through September 2017, the President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR) had supported 15.2 million voluntary medical male circumcisions (VMMCs) in 14 priority countries in Eastern and Southern Africa (2). Like any surgical intervention, VMMC carries a risk for complications or adverse events. Adverse events during circumcision of males aged ≥10 years occur in 0.5% to 8% of procedures, though the majority of adverse events are mild (3,4). To monitor safety and service quality, PEPFAR tracks and reports qualifying notifiable adverse events. Data reported from eight country VMMC programs during 2015-2016 revealed that bleeding resulting in hospitalization for ≥3 days was the most commonly reported qualifying adverse event. In several cases, the bleeding adverse event revealed a previously undiagnosed or undisclosed bleeding disorder. Bleeding adverse events in men with potential bleeding disorders are serious and can be fatal. Strategies to improve precircumcision screening and performance of circumcisions on clients at risk in settings where blood products are available are recommended to reduce the occurrence of these adverse events or mitigate their effects (5).
- Tuberculosis - United States, 2017. [Journal Article]
- MMMMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 2018 Mar 23; 67(11):317-323
- In 2017, a total of 9,093 new cases of tuberculosis (TB) were provisionally* reported in the United States, representing an incidence rate of 2.8 cases per 100,000 population. The case count decrease...
In 2017, a total of 9,093 new cases of tuberculosis (TB) were provisionally* reported in the United States, representing an incidence rate of 2.8 cases per 100,000 population. The case count decreased by 1.8% from 2016 to 2017, and the rate declined by 2.5% over the same period. These decreases are consistent with the slight decline in TB seen over the past several years (1). This report summarizes provisional TB surveillance data reported to CDC's National Tuberculosis Surveillance System for 2017 and in the last decade. The rate of TB among non-U.S.-born persons in 2017 was 15 times the rate among U.S.-born persons. Among non-U.S.-born persons, the highest TB rate among all racial/ethnic groups was among Asians (27.0 per 100,000 persons), followed by non-Hispanic blacks (blacks; 22.0). Among U.S.-born persons, most TB cases were reported among blacks (37.1%), followed by non-Hispanic whites (whites; 29.5%). Previous studies have shown that the majority of TB cases in the United States are attributed to reactivation of latent TB infection (LTBI) (2). Ongoing efforts to prevent TB transmission and disease in the United States remain important to continued progress toward TB elimination. Testing and treatment of populations most at risk for TB disease and LTBI, including persons born in countries with high TB prevalence and persons in high-risk congregate settings (3), are major components of this effort.
- Impact of Medicaid Expansion on Access to Opioid Analgesic Medications and Medication-Assisted Treatment. [Journal Article]
- AJAm J Public Health 2018 Mar 22; :e1-e7
- CONCLUSIONS: The Medicaid expansion enrolled a population no more likely to be prescribed opioids than the base Medicaid population while significantly increasing uptake of 2 drugs used in medication-assisted treatment. (Am J Public Health. Published online ahead of print March 22, 2018: e1-e7. doi:10.2105/AJPH.2018.304338).
- A Mobile Health Strategy to Support Adherence to Antiretroviral Preexposure Prophylaxis. [Journal Article]
- APAIDS Patient Care STDS 2018; 32(3):104-111
- Preexposure prophylaxis is a highly protective HIV prevention strategy, yet nonadherence can significantly reduce its effectiveness. We conducted a mixed methods evaluation of a mobile health interve...
Preexposure prophylaxis is a highly protective HIV prevention strategy, yet nonadherence can significantly reduce its effectiveness. We conducted a mixed methods evaluation of a mobile health intervention (iText) that utilized weekly bidirectional text or e-mail support messages to encourage preexposure prophylaxis (PrEP) adherence among participants in the multi-site iPrEx open-label extension study. A convenience sample of PrEP users from the San Francisco and Chicago sites participated in a 12-week pilot study. Fifty-six men who have sex with men were enrolled; a quarter of them were less than 30 years of age, 13% were black/African American, 11% were Latino, and most (88%) completed some college. Two-thirds opted for text message delivery. Of the 667 messages sent, only 1 individual requested support; initial nonresponse was observed in 22% and was higher among e-mail compared to text message recipients. Poststudy, a majority of participants would recommend the intervention to others, especially during PrEP initiation. Moreover, younger participants and men of color were more likely to report that they would use the iText strategy if it were available to them. Several participants commented that while they were aware that the messages were automated, they felt supported and encouraged that "someone was always there." Study staff reported that the intervention is feasible to administer and can be incorporated readily into clinic flow. A pre-post intervention regression discontinuity analysis using clinic-based pill counts showed a 50% reduction in missed doses [95% confidence interval (CI) 16-71; p = 0.008] and 77% (95% CI 33-92; p = 0.007) when comparing pill counts at quarterly visits just before and after iText enrollment. A mobile health intervention using weekly bidirectional messaging was highly acceptable and demonstrated promising effects on PrEP adherence warranting further evaluation for efficacy in a randomized controlled trial.
- White Book on Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine (PRM) in Europe. Chapter 6. Knowledge and skills of PRM physicians. [Journal Article]
- EJEur J Phys Rehabil Med 2018; 54(2):214-229
- In the context of the White Book of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine (PRM) in Europe, this paper deals with the fundamentals of PRM from a physiological perspective, looking at the human mechanis...
In the context of the White Book of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine (PRM) in Europe, this paper deals with the fundamentals of PRM from a physiological perspective, looking at the human mechanisms both physical and behavioral which are at the base of PRM physicians' work. After a discussion on the development and evolution of PRM that leads to its unique and specific approach, the mechanisms considered include: - repairing processes (and potential of recovery evaluation): repairing processes are mainly related to the quantity and natural history of diseases and impairments, while potential of recovery is also linked to the individual and environmental factors; PRM physicians work on impairments to favor healing or recovery, and propose rehabilitation if there is a potential of recovery: this is related to the prognostic role of PRM physicians; - learning processes: PRM is the specialty of teaching new physical ways and behavioral approaches to make patients participate at best through improvement of impairments and modification of activities; in this perspective, during repair and rehabilitation processes, PRM physicians and the rehabilitation team are teachers of new motor and behavioral strategies; - compensatory processes (adaptation/habilitation/rehabilitation): PRM physicians teach patients how to adapt to the new (acquired) health condition using compensatory mechanisms based on other body structures/functions, behavioral changes and/or assistive devices (or technical aids) (prosthesis and orthosis); during growth PRM physicians aim at allowing a complete (and compensatory) development of the intact function, not to be impaired by the original disease; compensatory processes are related to activities; - management skills: PRM physicians are managers of people and resources; they manage patients and their caregivers, to teach and allow them to reach the best possible participation, also focusing on maintenance; they lead the team, with the aim to make it function at best for the sake of the patient; finally, they manage resource allocation for the functioning of patients and team; - communication skills: PRM physicians need to develop very good communication skills, so to teach, inform and educate patients and their caregivers: this will allow the proper behavioural changes and also the correct physical compensations.
- Achievement of interventions on HIV infection prevention among migrants in China: A meta-analysis. [Journal Article]
- SJSAHARA J 2018; 15(1):31-41
- In China, migrants with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) have become a serious problem in the field of AIDS prevention. This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of interventions for human i...
In China, migrants with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) have become a serious problem in the field of AIDS prevention. This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of interventions for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection prevention for migrants in China and to identify factors associated with intervention efficacy. A computerized literature search of the Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure, Wan Fang, and PubMed databases was conducted to collect related articles published in China. Only self-control intervention studies or studies containing sections regarding self-control interventions wherein the method of intervention was health education were included. Rev Manager 5.3 software was used to analyze the intervention effects in terms of knowledge, attitude, and behavior indexes. Relative to pre-intervention, the HIV interventions showed statistically significant efficacy in terms of sexual transmission of HIV, condom use for HIV prevention, change in attitude towards HIV/AIDS patients, incidence of commercial sex behavior, and recent condoms use during sex (P < .01). Moreover, the baseline rate of migrants, intervention time, peer education, region, and education background were factors influencing the efficacy of the intervention. Significant improvement in terms of knowledge of sexual transmission of HIV and attitudes and behaviors among migrants was observed; however, based on the findings of previous studies, the interventions should be customized for different people from different districts in China. Further research is needed to evaluate subgroups of migrants in China according to their baseline characteristics.
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- [Ideal Medication-Readiness Cutoff Score for Initiating Antiviral Therapy in HIV Patients]. [Journal Article]
- HLHu Li Za Zhi 2018; 65(2):54-63
- CONCLUSIONS: The optimal cutoff value of the Chinese version HMRS for evaluating HAART initiation among persons with HIV infection was 23.5. HIV healthcare professionals may apply the Chinese version HMRS and the two simple self-rated items as a clinical tool for quickly assessing the initiation of ART in people living with HIV.