- Are there pharmaceutical compounds in sediments or in water? Determination of the distribution coefficient of benzodiazepine drugs in aquatic environment. [Journal Article]
- EPEnviron Pollut 2019 May 08; 251:522-529
- Alprazolam, clonazepam and diazepam are drugs belonging to the benzodiazepine class. These drugs might be important environmental contaminants in aquatic media. A total understanding of behavior and …
Alprazolam, clonazepam and diazepam are drugs belonging to the benzodiazepine class. These drugs might be important environmental contaminants in aquatic media. A total understanding of behavior and fate of drugs in aquatic environment is not available for these and other drugs. Thus, in this work, a complete optimization of sample treatment and extraction of analytes from sediments and water was described, as well a study of sediment/water distribution comparing it with sample characteristics. Ultrasound for 10 min and 3 steps using 3 mL of extraction solvent were chosen as the stirring form for extraction. A methanol/water (1:1) solution pH 12 was the best extraction solvent. Aiming to eliminate interferences, an addition of 10 μL of NaCl 3.06 mol L-1 was necessary after each step of extraction. Sediment and water samples were characterized, presenting different values on physical-chemical parameters. Six distinct sample sets of water and sediments were spiked with each benzodiazepine and analyzed. Kd values varied from 1.4 to 9.2 L kg-1 for clonazepam, 1.8-11.5 L kg-1 for alprazolam and 2.31-12 L kg-1 for diazepam. A principal component analysis showed high dependence on Kd with sample characteristics mainly related to sediments. In the systems, whose sediments presented high levels of clay, silt and organic matter, the drugs presented a great interaction with the solid part of the system, increasing the Kd value. Koc values varied from 149.25 to 634.13 L kg-1 for clonazepam, 186.57-852.48 L kg-1 for alprazolam, and 194.68-1189.81 L kg-1 for diazepam.
- Effect of Alprazolam as a Preoperative Adjuvant Analgesic on Postoperative Pain in Laparoscopic Donor Nephrectomy Patients. [Journal Article]
- TPTransplant Proc 2019; 51(4):1044-1048
- CONCLUSIONS: More effective analgesia protocols need to be identified for pain control in patients of laparoscopic donor nephrectomy. It is thought that the effectiveness of pain control may increase the number of donors and progress in the treatment of patients with renal failure.
- [A clinical trial of treatment of primary insomnia of patients with qi-stagnation constitution by shallow acupuncture combined with ear-acupoint pellet-pressing]. [Randomized Controlled Trial]
- ZCZhen Ci Yan Jiu 2019 Apr 25; 44(4):293-6
- CONCLUSIONS: Shallow acupuncture combined with ear-acupoint pellet-pressing can significantly improve sleep quality, depression symptoms, and pathological constitution in primary insomnia patients with qi-stagnation constitution, possessing a stable long-term clinical effect.
- MDS evidence-based review of treatments for essential tremor. [Review]
- MDMov Disord 2019 May 02
- CONCLUSIONS: Propranolol, primidone, and topiramate (>200 mg/day) are the pharmacological interventions in which the data reviewed robustly supported efficacy. Their safety profile and patient preference may guide the prioritization of these interventions in clinical practice. MRI-guided focused ultrasound thalamotomy was, for the first time, assessed and was considered to be possibly useful. There is a need to improve study design in essential tremor and overcome the limitation of small sample sizes, cross-over studies, short-term follow-up studies, and use of nonvalidated clinical scales. © 2019 International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society.
- Evaluation of an Experimentally Designed Molecular Imprinted Polyurethane Foam Performance for Extraction of Alprazolam. [Journal Article]
- JCJ Chromatogr Sci 2019 Apr 20
- Industrial polyurethane rigid foam (PUF) was selected as a substrate for selective solid phase extraction of Alprazolam. Effective parameters for raising selectivity of the PUF were evaluated. Synthe…
Industrial polyurethane rigid foam (PUF) was selected as a substrate for selective solid phase extraction of Alprazolam. Effective parameters for raising selectivity of the PUF were evaluated. Synthetic molecularly imprinted polyurethane foam (MIPUF) was tracked as selective adsorbent and its characteristic was pondered by analytical methods. Optimization was done by central composite design (CCD) to have high efficiency of the polymer adsorption. Two different extraction methods were compared in the selective adsorption processes using MIPUF and NIPUF, batch system and continuous (cartridge) system. Results of the adsorption of alprazolam on the MIPUF had 39% more recovery than NIPUF (reference polymer). Then, the proposed method suggests a selective extraction of mentioned analyte from urine and tablets as complex matrixes.
- High throughput bar adsorptive microextraction: A novel cost-effective tool for monitoring benzodiazepines in large number of biological samples. [Journal Article]
- TTalanta 2019 Jul 01; 199:195-202
- In this work, we propose an innovative high throughput (HT) apparatus using the bar adsorptive microextraction (BAμE) technique, which enables the simultaneous enrichment of up to 100 samples. This n…
In this work, we propose an innovative high throughput (HT) apparatus using the bar adsorptive microextraction (BAμE) technique, which enables the simultaneous enrichment of up to 100 samples. This novel configuration was combined with microliquid desorption and high-performance liquid chromatography-diode array detection to monitor trace levels of eight benzodiazepines (diazepam, prazepam, bromazepam, oxazepam, lorazepam, alprazolam, temazepam and loflazepate) in biological samples. The proposed methodology was fully developed, optimized and validated, resulting in suitable intraday and interday precision (RSD ≤ 15%), with recovery yields ranging from 33.0% to 104.5%. The lower limits of quantification were between 20.0 and 100.0 µg L-1, using 1.0 mL of urine and 0.5 mL of plasma or serum samples. The application of the proposed methodology to real matrices resulted in average sample preparation time of around 2 min per sample, demonstrating that it is user-friendly, cost-effective and a rapid decision-making tool, whenever large number of samples are involved.
- A Clinically Applicable Positive Allosteric Modulator of GABA Receptors Promotes Human β-Cell Replication and Survival as well as GABA's Ability to Inhibit Inflammatory T Cells. [Journal Article]
- JDJ Diabetes Res 2019; 2019:5783545
- A major goal of T1D research is to develop new approaches to increase β-cell mass and control autoreactive T cell responses. GABAA-receptors (GABAA-Rs) are promising drug targets in both those regard…
A major goal of T1D research is to develop new approaches to increase β-cell mass and control autoreactive T cell responses. GABAA-receptors (GABAA-Rs) are promising drug targets in both those regards due to their abilities to promote β-cell replication and survival, as well as inhibit autoreactive T cell responses. We previously showed that positive allosteric modulators (PAMs) of GABAA-Rs could promote rat β-cell line INS-1 and human islet cell replication in vitro. Here, we assessed whether treatment with alprazolam, a widely prescribed GABAA-R PAM, could promote β-cell survival and replication in human islets after implantation into NOD/scid mice. We observed that alprazolam treatment significantly reduced human islet cell apoptosis following transplantation and increased β-cell replication in the xenografts. Evidently, the GABAA-R PAM works in conjunction with GABA secreted from β-cells to increase β-cell survival and replication. Treatment with both the PAM and GABA further enhanced human β-cell replication. Alprazolam also augmented the ability of suboptimal doses of GABA to inhibit antigen-specific T cell responses in vitro. Thus, combined GABAA-R agonist and PAM treatment may help control inflammatory immune responses using reduced drug dosages. Together, these findings suggest that GABAA-R PAMs represent a promising drug class for safely modulating islet cells toward beneficial outcomes to help prevent or reverse T1D and, together with a GABAA-R agonist, may have broader applications for ameliorating other disorders in which inflammation contributes to the disease process.
- Evaluation of simulated driving in comparison to laboratory-based tests to assess the pharmacodynamics of alprazolam and alcohol. [Journal Article]
- JPJ Psychopharmacol 2019 Mar 26; :269881119836198
- CONCLUSIONS: The driving simulator can detect effects of reference substances at levels that are known to negatively affect driving.
- Use of benzodiazepine medications during pregnancy and potential risk for birth defects, National Birth Defects Prevention Study, 1997-2011. [Journal Article]
- BDBirth Defects Res 2019 Mar 19
- CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that benzodiazepines use is rare and may be associated with risk for certain birth defects. However, these results need replication and should be interpreted with caution.
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- Cannabinoid CB1 receptors mediate the anxiolytic effects induced by systemic alprazolam and intra-periaqueductal gray 5-HT1A receptor activation. [Journal Article]
- NLNeurosci Lett 2019 Jun 11; 703:5-10
- The endocannabinoid system has been implicated in the modulation of behaviors related to anxiety and panic disorders. Accordingly, facilitation of CB1 receptor signaling reduces the consequences of a…
The endocannabinoid system has been implicated in the modulation of behaviors related to anxiety and panic disorders. Accordingly, facilitation of CB1 receptor signaling reduces the consequences of aversive stimuli in animal models. However, the role of the CB1 receptor in the effects of anxiolytic drugs has remained unclear. Here, we tested the hypothesis that the anxiolytic and panicolytic responses to systemic alprazolam injection and local 5-HT1A receptor activation in the dorsolateral periaqueductal gray (dlPAG) depend on CB1 receptor activation. Systemic injection of alprazolam (4 mg/kg) induced an anxiolytic-like effect in the elevated T maze (ETM) model of panic and anxiety, which was prevented by the CB1 antagonist AM251 (0.3 mg/kg). Likewise, intra-dlPAG injection of the 5-HT1A receptor agonist 8-OH-DPAT (3.2 nmol/0.2 u L) also reduced anxiety-like behavior, a response prevented by intra-dlPAG injection of AM251 (100 pmol/0.2 µL). 8-OH-DPAT (8 nmol/0.2 µL) also presented a panicolytic-like activity in the escape reaction induced by chemical stimulation of the dlPAG, which was not prevented by AM251 (100 pmol/0.2 µL). These results suggest that CB1 receptor signaling is involved in the effects of anxiolytic drugs, with potential implications for developing new treatments for anxiety disorders.