- Pterostilbene Reduces Acetaminophen-Induced Liver Injury by Activating the Nrf2 Antioxidative Defense System via the AMPK/Akt/GSK3β Pathway. [Journal Article]
- CPCell Physiol Biochem 2018 Sep 20; 49(5):1943-1958
- CONCLUSIONS: Our data suggest that Pts protects against APAP-induced toxicity by activating Nrf2 via the AMPK/Akt/GSK3β pathway.
- A Lower 6MMP/6TG Ratio may be a Therapeutic Target in Pediatric Autoimmune Hepatitis. [Journal Article]
- JPJ Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr 2018 Sep 18
- CONCLUSIONS: Thiopurine metabolite levels should be measured in patients with AIH who have experienced a loss of remission. A 6-MMP/6-TG ratio of < 4 with the addition of allopurinol could be considered in these patients.
- A Qualitative Study of Psychological Outcomes in Avalanche First Responders. [Journal Article]
- HAHigh Alt Med Biol 2018 Sep 20
- CONCLUSIONS: Avalanche responders may experience long-lasting, work-related psychological effects. There is a paucity of effective psychological preparation and support for this population of first responders. Formal psychological support is positively received when available. Further study is required to evaluate particular interventions in this specific population.
- Frostbite in the Norwegian Armed Forces. [Journal Article]
- TNTidsskr Nor Laegeforen 2018 Sep 17
- Det finnes lite forskning på forekomst av frostskader, både sivilt og militært. Prognosen og tidsforløpet ved slike skader har ikke tidligere vært undersøkt i større kohorter.
Det finnes lite forskning på forekomst av frostskader, både sivilt og militært. Prognosen og tidsforløpet ved slike skader har ikke tidligere vært undersøkt i større kohorter.
- Ipragliflozin Ameliorates Liver Damage in Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease. [Journal Article]
- OMOpen Med (Wars) 2018; 13:402-409
- CONCLUSIONS: Ipragliflozin may be effective in patients with T2DM complicated by NAFLD.
- A Review of Relative Pollen Productivity Estimates From Temperate China for Pollen-Based Quantitative Reconstruction of Past Plant Cover. [Journal Article]
- FPFront Plant Sci 2018; 9:1214
- Model-based quantitative reconstruction of past plant cover in Europe has shown great potential for: (i) testing hypotheses related to Holocene vegetation dynamics, biodiversity, and their relationsh...
Model-based quantitative reconstruction of past plant cover in Europe has shown great potential for: (i) testing hypotheses related to Holocene vegetation dynamics, biodiversity, and their relationships with climate and land use; (ii) studying long term interactions between climate and land use. Similar model-based quantitative reconstruction of plant cover in China has been restricted due to the lack of standardized datasets of existing estimates of relative pollen productivity (RPP). This study presents the first synthesis of all RPP values available to date for 39 major plant taxa from temperate China and proposes standardized RPP datasets that can be used for model-based quantitative reconstructions of past plant cover using fossil pollen records for the region. We review 11 RPP studies in temperate China based on modern pollen and related vegetation data around the pollen samples. The study areas include meadow, steppe and desert vegetation, various woodland types, and cultural landscapes. We evaluate the strategies of each study in terms of selection of study areas and distribution of study sites; pollen- and vegetation-data collection in field; vegetation-data collection from satellite images and vegetation maps; and data analysis. We compare all available RPP estimates, select values based on precise rules and calculate mean RPP estimates. We propose two standardized RPP datasets for 31 (Alt1) and 29 (Alt2) plant taxa. The ranking of mean RPPs (Alt-2) relative to Poaceae (= 1) for eight major taxa is: Artemisia (21) > Pinus (18.4) > Betula (12.5) > Castanea (11.5) > Elaeagnaceae (8.8) > Juglans (7.5) > Compositae (4.5) > Amaranthaceae/Chenopodiaceae (4). We conclude that although RPPs are comparable between Europe and China for some genera and families, they can differ very significantly, e.g., Artemisia, Compositae, and Amaranthaceae/Chenopodiaceae. For some taxa, we present the first RPP estimates e.g. Castanea, Elaeagnaceae, and Juglans. The proposed standardized RPP datasets are essential for model-based reconstructions of past plant cover using fossil pollen records from temperate China.
- The -3279C>A and -924A>G polymorphisms in the FOXP3 Gene Are Associated With Viral Load and Liver Enzyme Levels in Patients With Chronic Viral Liver Diseases. [Journal Article]
- FIFront Immunol 2018; 9:2014
- The transcription factor FOXP3 is an essential marker of the development and activation of regulatory T cells (Tregs), which are cells specialized in the regulation and normal tolerance of the immune...
The transcription factor FOXP3 is an essential marker of the development and activation of regulatory T cells (Tregs), which are cells specialized in the regulation and normal tolerance of the immune response. In the context of chronic viral liver diseases, Tregs participate in the maintenance of infections by promoting histopathological control and favor the immune escape of viral agents by suppressing the antiviral response. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) may influence the function of FOXP3 in a number of pathological conditions. The present study sought to evaluate the influence of SNPs in the FOXP3 gene promoter region in patients with chronic viral liver diseases. Three SNPs (-3279C>A, -2383C>T, and -924A>G) were analyzed in groups of patients with chronic hepatitis C (CHC), active chronic hepatitis B (CHB-A), inactive chronic hepatitis B (CHB-I), and a healthy control group (CG) using real-time PCR. The frequencies of the polymorphic variants were compared between groups and correlated with liver histopathological characteristics and enzyme levels [i.e., alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT)] obtained via biopsy and from the clinical records of the participating patients, respectively. For the -2338C>T SNP, no significant differences were found in the frequencies of variants between groups or in the histological findings. Significant associations between the polymorphisms and the CHB-I group were not established. The -3279C>A SNP was associated with altered viral loads (log10) and GGT levels in CHC patients with advanced stages of inflammatory activity and liver fibrosis. The -924A>G SNP was associated with altered viral loads (log10) and liver enzyme levels among CHB-A patients with milder inflammation and fibrosis. However, the frequencies of the -3279C>A and -924A>G polymorphisms were not directly associated with the histopathological profiles of the analyzed patients. These polymorphic variants may influence hepatic function in patients with chronic viral liver diseases but are not directly associated with the establishment of the degree of inflammatory activity and liver fibrosis.
- Are laboratory parameter (biomarker) values similar to the healthy volunteer reference range in all patient populations? [Journal Article]
- DDDrug Des Devel Ther 2018; 12:2757-2773
- Liver biomarkers alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and bilirubin in patients with hepatitis are above the healthy volunteer reference range (HVRR) at baseline (prior to receiving the clinical trial medi...
Liver biomarkers alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and bilirubin in patients with hepatitis are above the healthy volunteer reference range (HVRR) at baseline (prior to receiving the clinical trial medication). Discussions continue as how to best distinguish drug-induced liver injury in patients with abnormal baseline values participating in clinical trials. This study investigated if other baseline routine clinical safety biomarkers (lab parameters) are different from the HVRR.
- Molecular hydrogen protects against ischemia-reperfusion injury in a mouse fatty liver model via regulating HO-1 and Sirt1 expression. [Journal Article]
- SRSci Rep 2018 Sep 19; 8(1):14019
- Fatty liver has lower tolerance against ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury in liver operations, including liver transplantation. Seeking to ameliorate liver injury following I/R in fatty liver, we exa...
Fatty liver has lower tolerance against ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury in liver operations, including liver transplantation. Seeking to ameliorate liver injury following I/R in fatty liver, we examined the protective effect of hydrogen (H2) saline on I/R liver injury in a methionine and choline-deficient plus high fat (MCDHF) diet-induced fatty liver mouse model. Saline containing 7 ppm H2 was administrated during the process of I/R. Livers were obtained and analyzed. Primary hepatocytes and Kupffer cells (KCs) were obtained from fatty liver and subjected to hypoxia/reoxygenation. Apoptosis-related proteins and components of the signaling pathway were analyzed after treatment with hydrogen gas. The MCDHF I/R group showed higher levels of AST and ALT in serum, TUNEL-positive apoptotic cells, F4/80 immunopositive cells, mRNA levels of inflammatory cytokines, constituents of the signaling pathway, pro-apoptotic molecules in liver, and KCs and/or primary hepatocytes, compared to the control group. In contrast, H2 treatment significantly suppressed the signs of I/R injury in fatty liver. Moreover, the expression of Bcl-2, HO-1, and Sirt1 in liver, KCs, and hepatocytes by hydrogen gas were increased, whereas caspase activation, Bax, and acetylation of p53 were suppressed by hydrogen gas. These results demonstrated that H2 treatment ameliorated I/R liver injury in a fatty liver model by reducing hepatocyte apoptosis, inhibiting macrophage activation and inflammatory cytokines, and inducing HO-1 and Sirt1 expression. Taken togather, treatment with H2 saline may have a protective effect and safe therapeutic activity during I/R events, such as in liver transplantation with fatty liver.
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- Betulinic acid protects mice from cadmium chloride-induced toxicity by inhibiting cadmium-induced apoptosis in kidney and liver. [Journal Article]
- TLToxicol Lett 2018 Sep 16
- Cadmium exposure is closely associated with a variety of diseases including cancers and the accumulation of cadmium has been long recognized as a public health problem. It is therefore of high import...
Cadmium exposure is closely associated with a variety of diseases including cancers and the accumulation of cadmium has been long recognized as a public health problem. It is therefore of high importance to find methods to reduce cadmium accumulation in the human body. Herein, we report that administration of betulinic acid (BA) protects mice from cadmium chloride (CdCl2)-induced toxicity by inhibiting cadmium-induced apoptosis in both kidney and liver. Mice were given oral doses of 3 mg/kg, 10 mg/kg and 30 mg/kg of BA daily for ten consecutive days, and were injected with one dose of 1 mg/kg CdCl2 after one hour of BA administration every day. The levels of serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and blood urea nitrogen (BUN) were assessed by ELISA. Residual cadmium was determined by atomic absorption analysis. Protein expression was evaluated by western blotting. Pretreatment with BA significantly reduced residual cadmium levels in the liver, kidney and testis, increased the cadmium output in urine, and reduced tissue damage induced by CdCl2. Moreover, BA prevented body weight loss by CdCl2 in a dose dependent manner. Furthermore, BA treatment increased the expression levels of B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2), decreased Bcl-2-associated X (Bax), and inhibited the levels of active caspase-3. Importantly, BA within a dose of 30 mg/kg did not induce any signs of toxicity, and protected mice from the toxicity induced by CdCl2 in a dose-dependent manner. Our findings suggest that BA inhibits CdCl2 induced apoptosis in the kidney and liver, and BA may be an effective agent for the prevention and treatment of cadmium-induced diseases in humans.