- Management of primary refractory acute myeloid leukemia in the era of targeted therapies. [Journal Article]
- LLLeuk Lymphoma 2018 Sep 20; :1-14
- Primary refractory acute myeloid leukemia (AML), or primary induction failure, represents a continued challenge in clinical management. This review presents an overview of primary refractory disease ...
Primary refractory acute myeloid leukemia (AML), or primary induction failure, represents a continued challenge in clinical management. This review presents an overview of primary refractory disease and a discussion of risk factors for induction failure, including current evidence regarding the impact of karyotype and molecular mutation status on responsiveness to chemotherapy. We review the evidence for various treatment options for refractory AML including salvage chemotherapy regimens, allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, targeted agents, and non-intensive therapies such as hypomethylating agents. A therapeutic approach to this patient population is presented, and several new and emerging therapies are reviewed.
- Preparation of Astragalus membranaceus lectin and evaluation of its biological function. [Journal Article]
- BRBiomed Rep 2018; 9(4):345-349
- Astragalus membranaceus lectin (AML) was abstracted as a supposedly novel agglutinin of 67 kDa from the seeds of Astragalus membranaceus. The seeds of Astragalus membranaceus were treated with acetat...
Astragalus membranaceus lectin (AML) was abstracted as a supposedly novel agglutinin of 67 kDa from the seeds of Astragalus membranaceus. The seeds of Astragalus membranaceus were treated with acetate, ammonium sulfate precipitation, and purified by HiTrap SP XL ion column and Superdex G25 gel filtration chromatography to obtain the AML. AML contained 16.4% sugar, ~70% polar amino acids and ~30% hydrophobic amino acids. The AML exhibited agglutination activity toward human and animal erythrocytes, particularly human blood type O and rabbit erythrocytes. It also exhibited acid/alkali resistance and thermal denaturation above 64°C. Compared with human normal liver HL-7702 cells, different concentrations of AML (6.25, 12.50, 25.00 and 50.00 µg/ml) exhibited superior inhibitory effects on the growth of SGC-7901, HepG2 and H22 carcinoma cell lines, and displayed marked antibacterial effects on bacteria; the half maximal inhibitory concentration for B. dysenteriae, S. aureus and E. coli were 85.4, 80.2 and 65.3 µg/ml, respectively.
- Development and evaluation of LAMP, CPA and IMSA methods for rapid detection of the AML1/ETO fusion gene in acute myeloid leukemia. [Journal Article]
- ETExp Ther Med 2018; 16(4):3353-3362
- The objective of the present study was to determine whether the loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP), cross-priming amplification (CPA), and/or isothermal multiple-self-matching-initiated am...
The objective of the present study was to determine whether the loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP), cross-priming amplification (CPA), and/or isothermal multiple-self-matching-initiated amplification (IMSA) methods can provide rapid detection of the runt related transcription factor 1/runt related transcription factor 1 translocation partner 1 (AML1/ETO) fusion gene in acute myeloid leukemia (AML). According to the sequence of the AML1/ETO fusion gene available in GenBank and the principles of the LAMP, CPA and IMSA methods, specific primers were designed to bind a conserved region of the AML1/ETO gene in each assay. Following optimization of the conditions for the LAMP, CPA and IMSA assays, the specificity and sensitivity of the assays were examined and compared. In addition, 41 clinical samples were assayed using the three methods. It was observed that a ladder-like pattern of DNA products was produced in AML1/ETO-positive samples in all three assays, whereas no DNA product was generated with the controls. The detection limit of the LAMP and CPA assays was 50 copies/tube, and for the IMSA assay was 10 copies/tube. This sensitivity was consistent, and improved in the latter case, compared with that of the reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assay. Furthermore, the detection rate for bone marrow or peripheral blood samples was 9.76%, and the agreement among the LAMP, CPA, IMSA and RT-PCR methods was 100%. Therefore, the LAMP, CPA and IMSA methods optimized in the present study provided rapid detection of the AML1/ETO fusion gene for an initial clinical diagnosis of AML. In addition, the LAMP, CPA and IMSA assays are straightforward to perform and do not require specialized instruments. Therefore, these three isothermal methods may be used to perform field tests or assays at resource-limited hospitals.
- Selection of Tumor-Specific Cytotoxic T Lymphocytes in Acute Myeloid Leukemia Patients Through the Identification of T-Cells Capable to Establish Stable Interactions With the Leukemic Cells: "Doublet Technology". [Journal Article]
- FIFront Immunol 2018; 9:1971
- The relevance of the immune system in cancer has long been studied. Autologous adoptive T cell therapies, based on the use of tumor infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs), have made great progress in recent...
The relevance of the immune system in cancer has long been studied. Autologous adoptive T cell therapies, based on the use of tumor infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs), have made great progress in recent years for the treatment of solid tumors, especially melanoma. However, further work is needed to isolate tumor-reactive T cells among patients diagnosed with hematologic malignancies. The dynamics of the interaction between T cells and antigen presenting cells (APC) dictate the quality of the immune responses. While stable joints between target cells and T lymphocytes lead to the induction of T cell activation and immune response, brief contacts contribute to the induction of immune-tolerance. Taking advantage of the strong interaction between target cell and activated T-cells, we show the feasibility to identify and isolate tumor-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) from acute myeloid leukemia (AML) patients by flow cytometry. Using this technology, CTLs bound through T cell receptor (TCR) to tumor cells can be identified in peripheral blood and bone marrow and subsequently selected and isolated by FACS-based cell sorting. These CTLs display higher percentage of effector cells and marked cytotoxic activity against AML blasts. In conclusion, we have developed a new procedure to identify and select specific cytotoxic T cells in patients diagnosed with acute myeloid leukemia.
- Robust human and murine hepatocyte culture models of hepatitis B virus infection and replication. [Journal Article]
- JVJ Virol 2018 Sep 19
- Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is a major cause of chronic liver diseases including hepatitis, cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma. HBV research has been hampered by the lack of robust cell culture and ...
Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is a major cause of chronic liver diseases including hepatitis, cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma. HBV research has been hampered by the lack of robust cell culture and small animal models of HBV infection. The discovery of sodium taurocholate cotransporting polypeptide (NTCP) as an HBV receptor has been a landmark advance in HBV research in recent years. Ectopic expression of NTCP in nonpermissive HepG2, Huh7, and AML12 cell lines confers HBV susceptibility. However, HBV replication in these human and murine hepatocytes cell lines appeared suboptimal. In present study, we have constructed stable NTCP-expressing HepG2 and AML12 cell lines and found that HBV permissiveness is correlated with NTCP expression. More significantly, we have developed robust HBV cell culture models by treating the HBV-infected cells with dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) and hydrocortisone, which significantly promoted HBV replication and production. Mechanistic studies suggested that hydrocortisone significantly enhanced the transcription and expression of PGC1α and HNF4α which are known to promote HBV transcription and replication. These new human and murine hepatocyte culture systems of HBV infection and replication will accelerate the determination of molecular aspects underlying HBV infection, replication, and morphogenesis in human and murine hepatocytes. We anticipate that our HBV cell culture models will also facilitate the discovery and development of antiviral drugs towards the ultimate eradication of chronic hepatitis B.IMPORTANCEHBV research has been greatly hampered by the lack of robust cell culture and small animal models of HBV infection and propagation. The discovery of NTCP as an HBV receptor has greatly impacted the field of HBV research. Although HBV infection of the NTCP-expressing human and murine hepatocyte cell lines has been demonstrated, its replication in cell culture appeared inefficient. To further improve cell culture systems of HBV infection and replication, we have constructed NTCP-expressing HepG2 and AML-12 cell lines that are highly permissive to HBV infection. More significantly, we have found that DMSO and hydrocortisone markedly enhanced HBV transcription and replication in human and murine hepatocytes when added to cell culture medium. These new cell culture models of HBV infection and replication will facilitate HBV research and antiviral drug discovery towards ultimate elimination of chronic hepatitis B.
- Donor-derived MDS/AML in families with germline GATA2 mutation. [Journal Article]
- BloodBlood 2018 Sep 19
- Acute Myeloid Leukemia: The Good, the Bad, and the Ugly. [Journal Article]
- ASAm Soc Clin Oncol Educ Book 2018 May 23; (38):555-573
- Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) was initially subdivided according to morphology (the French-American-British system), which proved helpful in pathologic categorization. Subsequently, clinical and genom...
Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) was initially subdivided according to morphology (the French-American-British system), which proved helpful in pathologic categorization. Subsequently, clinical and genomic factors were found to correlate with response to chemotherapy and with overall survival. These included a history of antecedent hematologic disease, a history of chemotherapy or radiation therapy, the presence of various recurrent cytogenetic abnormalities, and, more recently, the presence of specific point mutations. This article reviews the biology and responses of one AML subgroup with consistent response and good outcomes following chemotherapy (core-binding factor leukemia), and two subgroups with persistently bad, and even ugly, outcomes (secondary AML and TP53-mutated AML).
- Suppressed CCL2 expression inhibits the proliferation of leukemia cells via the cell cycle protein Cyclin D1: preliminary in vitro data. [Journal Article]
- EREur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci 2018; 22(17):5588-5596
- CONCLUSIONS: Our study revealed that Cyclin D1 is an effector that mediates CCL2's function in cell proliferation by blocking cells at G1 phase.
- IMiDs mobilize acute myeloid leukemia blasts to peripheral blood through downregulation of CXCR4 but fail to potentiate AraC/Idarubicin activity in preclinical models of non del5q/5q- AML. [Journal Article]
- OOncoimmunology 2018; 7(9):e1477460
- Treatment for acute myeloid leukemia (AML) remains suboptimal and many patients remain refractory or relapse upon standard chemotherapy based on nucleoside analogs plus anthracyclines. The crosstalk ...
Treatment for acute myeloid leukemia (AML) remains suboptimal and many patients remain refractory or relapse upon standard chemotherapy based on nucleoside analogs plus anthracyclines. The crosstalk between AML cells and the BM stroma is a major mechanism underlying therapy resistance in AML. Lenalidomide and pomalidomide, a new generation immunomodulatory drugs (IMiDs), possess pleiotropic anti-leukemic properties including potent immune-modulating effects and are commonly used in hematological malignances associated with intrinsic dysfunctional BM such as myelodysplastic syndromes and multiple myeloma. Whether IMiDs may improve the efficacy of current standard treatment in AML remains understudied. Here, we have exploited in vitro and in vivo preclinical AML models to analyze whether IMiDs potentiate the efficacy of AraC/Idarubicin-based standard AML chemotherapy by interfering with the BM stroma-mediated chemoresistance. We report that IMiDs do not exert cytotoxic effects on either non-del5q/5q- AML cells nor BM-MSCs, but they enhance the immunomodulatory properties of BM-MSCs. When combined with AraC/Idarubicin, IMiDs fail to circumvent BM stroma-mediated resistance of non-del5q/5q- AML cells in vitro and in vivo but induce robust extramedullary mobilization of AML cells. When administered as a single agent, lenalidomide specifically mobilizes non-del5q/5q- AML cells, but not healthy CD34+ cells, to peripheral blood (PB) through specific downregulation of CXCR4 in AML blasts. Global gene expression profiling supports a migratory/mobilization gene signature in lenalidomide-treated non-del5q/5q- AML blasts but not in CD34+ cells. Collectively, IMiDs mobilize non-del5q/5q- AML blasts to PB through CXCR4 downregulation, but fail to potentiate AraC/Idarubicin activity in preclinical models of non-del5q/5q- AML.
New Search Next
- Dual-targeting triplebody 33-16-123 (SPM-2) mediates effective redirected lysis of primary blasts from patients with a broad range of AML subtypes in combination with natural killer cells. [Journal Article]
- OOncoimmunology 2018; 7(9):e1472195
- A number of agents designed for immunotherapy of Acute Myeloid Leukemia (AML) are in preclinical and early clinical development. Most of them target a single antigen on the surface of AML cells. Here...
A number of agents designed for immunotherapy of Acute Myeloid Leukemia (AML) are in preclinical and early clinical development. Most of them target a single antigen on the surface of AML cells. Here we describe the development and key biological properties of a tri-specific agent, the dual-targeting triplebody SPM-2, with binding sites for target antigens CD33 and CD123, and for CD16 to engage NK cells as cytolytic effectors. Primary blasts of nearly all AML patients carry at least one of these target antigens and the pair is particularly promising for the elimination of blasts and leukemia stem cells (LSCs) from a majority of AML patients by dual-targeting agents. The cytolytic activity of NK cells mediated by SPM-2 was analyzed in vitro for primary leukemic cells from 29 patients with a broad range of AML-subtypes. Blasts from all 29 patients, including patients with genomic alterations associated with an unfavorable genetic subtype, were lysed at nanomolar concentrations of SPM-2. Maximum susceptibility was observed for cells with a combined density of CD33 and CD123 above 10,000 copies/cell. Cell populations enriched for AML-LSCs (CD34pos and CD34pos CD38neg cells) from 2 AML patients carried an increased combined antigen density and were lysed at correspondingly lower concentrations of SPM-2 than unsorted blasts. These initial findings raise the expectation that SPM-2 may also be capable of eliminating AML-LSCs and thus of prolonging survival. In the future, patients with a broad range of AML subtypes may benefit from treatment with SPM-2.