- Multimodal Postoperative Pain Control Is Effective and Reduces Opioid Use After Laparoscopic Roux-en-Y Gastric Bypass. [Journal Article]
- OSObes Surg 2018 Oct 13
- CONCLUSIONS: An opioid-sparing multimodal pain regimen adequately controls pain while reducing TME use. The regimen appears to be safe and was associated with a reduced length of stay in patients undergoing LRYGB.
- Relevance of the incubation period in cytotoxicity testing with primary human hepatocytes. [Journal Article]
- ATArch Toxicol 2018 Oct 13
- Primary human hepatocytes (PHHs) remain the gold standard for in vitro testing in the field of pharmacology and toxicology. One crucial parameter influencing the results of in vitro tests is the incu...
Primary human hepatocytes (PHHs) remain the gold standard for in vitro testing in the field of pharmacology and toxicology. One crucial parameter influencing the results of in vitro tests is the incubation period with test compounds. It has been suggested that longer incubation periods may be critical for the prediction of repeated dose toxicity. However, a study that systematically analyzes the relationship between incubation period and cytotoxicity in PHHs is not available. To close this gap, 30 compounds were tested in a concentration-dependent manner for cytotoxicity in cultivated cryopreserved PHHs (three donors per compound) for 1, 2 and 7 days. The median of the EC50 values of all compounds decreased 1.78-fold on day 2 compared to day 1, and 1.89-fold on day 7 compared to day 1. Median values of EC50 ratios of all compounds at day 2 and day 7 were close to one but for individual compounds the ratio increased up to almost six. Strong correlations were obtained for EC50 on day 1 and day 7 (R = 0.985; 95% CI 0.960-0.994), day 1 and day 2 (R = 0.964; 95% CI 0.910-0.986), as well as day 2 and day 7 (R = 0.981; 95% CI 0.955-0.992). However, compound specific differences also occurred. Whereas, for example, busulfan showed a relatively strong increase on day 7 compared to day 1, cytotoxicity of acetaminophen did not increase during longer incubation periods. To validate the observed correlations, a publicly available data set, containing data on the cytotoxicity of human hepatocytes cultivated as spheroids for incubation periods of 5 and 14 days, was analyzed. A high correlation coefficient of EC50 values at day 5 and day 14 was obtained (R = 0.894; 95% CI 0.798-0.945). In conclusion, the median cytotoxicity of the test compounds increased between 1 and 2 days of incubation, with no or only a minimal further increase until day 7. It remains to be studied whether the different results obtained for some individual compounds after longer exposure periods would correspond better to human-repeated dose toxicity.
- Effectiveness of acetaminophen in control of breakthrough pain: Randomized controlled trial. [Journal Article]
- JPJ Pak Med Assoc 2018; 68(7):994-1001
- CONCLUSIONS: Additional acetaminophen reduced mild to moderate pain between two doses of parenteral analgesia.
- A UHPLC-MS/MS method coupled with liquid-liquid extraction for the quantitation of phenacetin, omeprazole, metoprolol, midazolam and their metabolites in rat plasma and its application to the study of four CYP450 activities. [Journal Article]
- JPJ Pharm Biomed Anal 2018 Oct 04; 163:204-210
- Drug-drug interactions (DDIs) are thought to be associated with the inhibition of cytochrome P450 activities. The cocktail method with analysis of the metabolism of two or more probe drugs is used to...
Drug-drug interactions (DDIs) are thought to be associated with the inhibition of cytochrome P450 activities. The cocktail method with analysis of the metabolism of two or more probe drugs is used to determine CYP450 activities. In this study, we established a UHPLC-MS/MS method for simultaneous quantitation of four CYP450 probe drugs (phenacetin, omeprazole, metoprolol and midazolam) and their metabolites (acetaminophen, 5'-hydroxy omeprazole, α-hydroxy metoprolol and 1'-hydroxy midazolam) in rat plasma. Sample preparation by plasma protein precipitation was combined with a liquid-liquid extraction method. The separation was carried out on a ZORBAX Eclipse Plus C18 Rapid Resolution High Definition column with a gradient elution, using water containing 0.1% formic acid (A) and acetonitrile (B) in a run time of only 3.0 min. Detection was conducted with a 6420 series triple-quadrupole tandem mass spectrometer, using ESI in positive ion mode with multiple reaction monitoring (MRM). The calibration curves were linear over the concentration range 10-5000 ng/mL for phenacetin, omeprazole, metoprolol and midazolam, and 1-500 ng/mL for their metabolites. Intra- and inter-day precisions were within 15%, and the accuracies were in the range of 87-112%. The method was successfully applied to the pharmacokinetic study of probe drugs/metabolites and DDIs with 3-n-butylphthalide (NBP) after administration of a single oral dose of phenacetin, omeprazole, metoprolol and midazolam in rats.
- Effect of hemolysis, icterus, and lipemia on three acetaminophen assays: Potential medical consequences of false positive results. [Journal Article]
- CCClin Chim Acta 2018 Oct 11
- CONCLUSIONS: Hemolysis and icterus had insignificant interference on the Syva EMIT® and the DRI® assays for the analysis of acetaminophen, but significant interference effect on the Roche assay. On the other hand lipemia interfered less markedly with the Roche assay. The effect of hemolysis, icterus and lipemia should always be considered. Cautions are warranted when interpreting results for the potential false positive results in the presence of hemolysis and icterus at the concentrations evaluated in this study.
- Bananas decrease acetaminophen potency in in vitro assays. [Journal Article]
- PlosPLoS One 2018; 13(10):e0205612
- Edible portions of bananas contain high levels of polyphenol oxidase, which catalyzes reactions in the melanin formation pathway. Tyrosine, a physiological substrate of polyphenol oxidase, has an ana...
Edible portions of bananas contain high levels of polyphenol oxidase, which catalyzes reactions in the melanin formation pathway. Tyrosine, a physiological substrate of polyphenol oxidase, has an analogous structure to acetaminophen. We investigated whether banana extract causes structural changes in acetaminophen and a decrease in its potency. Acetaminophen concentration in banana extract was measured under different conditions to characterize incompatibility. Reaction products in solution were identified using liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization/mass spectrometry (LC/ESI/MS). Acetaminophen potency decreased with time in the presence of banana extract. The reaction proceeded most efficiently in temperatures 30-37°C and neutral to weakly acidic conditions. Molecular ion peaks derived from the oxidized catechol moiety of acetaminophen were identified in LC/ESI/MS spectra. Our findings suggest that incorporation or simultaneous administration of acetaminophen medication and banana juice may result in decreased efficacy of the clinically important drug. This interaction is likely due to the oxidation of acetaminophen by polyphenol oxidase activity in banana pulp. Therefore, we investigated and characterized a novel interaction between bananas and acetaminophen. To establish a safe and effective antipyretic analgesic regimen using acetaminophen, future studies of this interaction are expected to be performed in humans.
- Toxic Ingestion of Acetaminophen and Acetylsalicylic Acid in a Parturient at 33 Weeks Gestation: A Case Report. [Journal Article]
- PA A Pract 2018 Oct 11
- The anesthetic management of toxic ingestion during pregnancy requires concomitant concerns for both mother and fetus. We describe the management of a parturient at 33 weeks of gestation after a suic...
The anesthetic management of toxic ingestion during pregnancy requires concomitant concerns for both mother and fetus. We describe the management of a parturient at 33 weeks of gestation after a suicide attempt by ingestion of acetaminophen (APAP) and acetylsalicylic acid (ASA). Timing of toxin ingestion must be determined, prompt antidote administration prioritized, and hepatotoxicity-induced hematologic impairment anticipated. Fetal exposure to toxins must also be minimized. The use of point-of-care rotational thromboelastometry in conjunction with standard coagulation testing in such cases facilitates consideration of neuraxial anesthesia and determination of risk for postpartum hemorrhage.
- Effect of Ocimum basilicum leaves extract on acetaminophen-induced nephrotoxicity in BALB/c mice. [Journal Article]
- JCJ Complement Integr Med 2018 Oct 12
- Background Acetaminophen (APAP) is one of the most widely used drugs to treat pain. Its overdose is lethal causing liver and kidney failure. Nephrotoxicity and hepatotoxicity are mostly due to the ov...
Background Acetaminophen (APAP) is one of the most widely used drugs to treat pain. Its overdose is lethal causing liver and kidney failure. Nephrotoxicity and hepatotoxicity are mostly due to the overproduction of reactive oxygen species. Ocimum basilicum, known as basil, is a commonly used medicinal plant due to its versatile role as antibacterial, antifungal, and anti-oxidative. We aim in this study to investigate the preventive and protective effect of basil leaves aqueous extract against APAP-induced hepatorenal toxicity in BALB/c mice. Methods Acute kidney injury (AKI) was induced in mice using APAP. Mice were treated with basils extract pre and post AKI induction. Kidney and liver functions were assessed by measuring creatinine, urea, alanine transaminase, and aspartate transaminase levels in serum. Superoxide dismutase, catalase (CAT), and malondialdehyde levels of renal and hepatic tissues were assayed using Elisa. Kidney injury molecule (KIM-1) was quantified in kidney homogenate. Histopathological analysis of kidney and liver were examined. Results Significant increase in all serum parameters, in hepatic and renal MDA, and in renal KIM-1 levels was observed post AKI induction. Treatment with basils post AKI induction minimized APAP damage by reducing serum markers and MDA in both organs and by increasing SOD and CAT. However, pretreatment with basils extract caused additional increase in serum ALT and AST and MDA in liver, with a significant increase in renal antioxidant enzymes. These results were confirmed by histopathological examination. Conclusion Basil extract may act as a natural antioxidant to treat APAP-induced acute hepato-renal toxicity when used as a post-treatment.
- [Regulation of autophagy by GLT25D2 gene in acetaminophen-induced hepatotoxicity injury]. [Journal Article]
- ZWZhonghua Wei Zhong Bing Ji Jiu Yi Xue 2018; 30(9):882-887
- CONCLUSIONS: GLT25D2 is a negative regulator of autophagy. Knockout of GLT25D2 gene can enhance the autophagy level of APAP-induced hepatotoxicity injury in mice.
New Search Next
- Danger-Associated Molecular Patterns (DAMPs): Molecular Triggers for Sterile Inflammation in the Liver. [Review]
- IJInt J Mol Sci 2018 Oct 10; 19(10)
- Inflammatory liver diseases in the absence of pathogens such as intoxication by xenobiotics, cholestatic liver injury, hepatic ischemia-reperfusion injury (I/R), non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH),...
Inflammatory liver diseases in the absence of pathogens such as intoxication by xenobiotics, cholestatic liver injury, hepatic ischemia-reperfusion injury (I/R), non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), or alcoholic liver disease (ALD) remain threatening conditions demanding specific therapeutic options. Caused by various different noxae, all these conditions have been recognized to be triggered by danger- or death-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs), discompartmentalized self-structures released by dying cells. These endogenous, ectopic molecules comprise proteins, nucleic acids, adenosine triphosphate (ATP), or mitochondrial compounds, among others. This review resumes the respective modes of their release-passively by necrotic hepatocytes or actively by viable or apoptotic parenchymal cells-and their particular roles in sterile liver pathology. It addresses their sensors and the initial inflammatory responses they provoke. It further addresses a resulting second wave of parenchymal death that might be of different mode, boosting the release of additional, second-line DAMPs. Thus, triggering a more complex and pronounced response. Initial and secondary inflammatory responses comprise the activation of Kupffer cells (KCs), the attraction and activation of monocytes and neutrophil granulocytes, and the induction of type I interferons (IFNs) and their effectors. A thorough understanding of pathophysiology is a prerequisite for identifying rational therapeutic targets.