- A redescription of Liangwangshania biloba Chen, 2005, from the Chengjiang biota (Cambrian, China), with a discussion of possible sexual dimorphism in fuxianhuiid arthropods. [Journal Article]
- ASArthropod Struct Dev 2018 Aug 17
- Material attributed to Liangwangshania biloba, a fuxianhuiid arthropod from the lower Cambrian (Series 2, Stage 3) of southwest China, is redescribed, with many specimens illustrated for the first ti...
Material attributed to Liangwangshania biloba, a fuxianhuiid arthropod from the lower Cambrian (Series 2, Stage 3) of southwest China, is redescribed, with many specimens illustrated for the first time. Newly recognized features include, potential optical neuropils, a stout posterolateral carapace spine, serrated tergal pleurae, two rows of mediolateral carinae, an abdomen composed of seven segments, the last possessing a tripartite lateral flap, and a triangular telson. The presence of tergal carinae, a prothorax composed of six segments, and a trunk composed of 43 segments tipped with a flap-like terminal segment, increase similarities with the previously described Shankouia zhenghei, thus prompting a reevaluation of the potential synonymy of these taxa. These previously recognized species also show considerable overlap in body size, and the ratios of selected body features, such as the carapace. This, combined with their co-occurrence over a temporally and geographically limited range, further support their synonymy. L. biloba is considered the senior synonym in accordance with ICZN rulings, with morphological differences, specifically the presence of posterolateral spines on the carapace, serrated tergopleurae, and spines on the terminal abdominal segment, attributed to sexual variation. An evaluation of potential sexual dimorphism in other fuxianhuiids, and a reassessment of terminology applied to this group is also provided.
- An Autism-Related, Nonsense Foxp1 Mutant Induces Autophagy and Delays Radial Migration of the Cortical Neurons. [Journal Article]
- CCCereb Cortex 2018 Aug 15
- Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a complex neurodevelopmental disorder that has a strong genetic component. Disruptions of FOXP1, a transcription factor expressed in the developing cerebral cortex, ...
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a complex neurodevelopmental disorder that has a strong genetic component. Disruptions of FOXP1, a transcription factor expressed in the developing cerebral cortex, were associated with ASD. FOXP1(R525X) is a de novo heterozygous mutation found in patients with autism and severe mental retardation. To explore the neuronal basis of FOXP1(R525X) in ASD, we created Foxp1(R521X), a mouse homolog of the human variant. Ectopic expression of Foxp1(R521X) led to cytoplasmic aggregates and activated macroautophagy in neuroblastoma N2a cells and the developing neuronal cells. Cortical neurons expressing Foxp1(R521X) exhibited delayed migration and altered dendritic morphology. As a control, mutant Y435X that was expressed diffusively in the cytoplasm did not induce autophagy and migration delay in the cortex. The embryonic cortical cells had a minimal activity of nonsense-mediated mRNA decay (NMD) as assayed by a splicing-dependent NMD reporter. We hypothesize that the developing neuronal cells use autophagy but not NMD as a safeguard mechanism against nonsense mutant aggregates, resulting in impairment of the cortical development. This study suggests a novel mechanism other than heterozygous loss of FOXP1 for the development of ASD and may advance our understanding of the complex relationships between gene mutation and the related psychiatric disorders.
- Are Motor Control and Regulation Problems Part of the ASD Motor Profile? A Handwriting Study. [Journal Article]
- DNDev Neuropsychol 2018 Aug 20; :1-14
- The primary aim of this study was to kinematically assess how children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) plan and control their handwriting actions. Forty-three boys aged between 8 to 12 years were...
The primary aim of this study was to kinematically assess how children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) plan and control their handwriting actions. Forty-three boys aged between 8 to 12 years were included in the present analysis; 23 with ASD and 20 typically developing (TD) controls. Sophisticated objective and quantifiable assessment of movement metrics and dynamics was applied across a series of basic cursive handwriting sequences. Children with ASD demonstrated atypical control of handwriting metrics and dynamics, as well as significantly greater neuromotor noise relative to age-matched peers. They also engaged in less regular monitoring and regulation of their movement during the handwriting task. This study provides new insights into the way children with ASD plan and sequence their handwriting movements. Overall, results revealed that even at a basic level, children with ASD appear to have a breakdown in their ability to control and regulate their handwriting movements. This has important implications for the school-aged child who constantly engages in handwriting tasks within the classroom environment and provides insight into possible directions for future intervention.
- Resveratrol ameliorates prenatal progestin exposure-induced autism-like behavior through ERβ activation. [Journal Article]
- MAMol Autism 2018; 9:43
- CONCLUSIONS: We conclude that resveratrol ameliorates prenatal progestin exposure-induced autism-like behavior through ERβ activation. Our data suggest that prenatal progestin exposure is a strong risk factor for autism-like behavior. Many potential clinical progestin applications, including oral contraceptive pills, preterm birth drugs, and progestin-contaminated drinking water or seafood, may be risk factors for ASD. In addition, RSV may be a good candidate for clinically rescuing or preventing ASD symptoms in humans, while high doses of resveratrol used in the animals may be a potential limitation for human application.
- Altered Amygdala Excitation and CB1 Receptor Modulation of Aggressive Behavior in the Neuroligin-3R451C Mouse Model of Autism. [Journal Article]
- FCFront Cell Neurosci 2018; 12:234
- Understanding neuronal mechanisms underlying aggression in patients with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) could lead to better treatments and prognosis. The Neuroligin-3 (NL3)R451C mouse model of ASD h...
Understanding neuronal mechanisms underlying aggression in patients with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) could lead to better treatments and prognosis. The Neuroligin-3 (NL3)R451C mouse model of ASD has a heightened aggressive phenotype, however the biological mechanisms underlying this behavior are unknown. It is well established that NL3R451C mice have imbalanced excitatory and inhibitory synaptic activity in the hippocampus and somatosensory cortex. The amygdala plays a role in modulating aggressive behavior, however potential changes in synaptic activity in this region have not previously been assessed in this model. We investigated whether aggressive behavior is robustly present in mice expressing the R451C mutation, following back-crossing onto a congenic background strain. Endocannabinoids influence social interaction and aggressive behavior, therefore we also studied the effects of cannabinoid receptor 1 (CB1) agonist on NL3R451C mice. We report that NL3R451C mice have increased amplitude of miniature excitatory postsynaptic currents (EPSCs) with a concomitant decrease in the amplitude of inhibitory postsynaptic currents (IPSCs) in the basolateral amygdala. Importantly, we demonstrated that NL3R451C mice bred on a C57Bl/6 background strain exhibit an aggressive phenotype. Following non-sedating doses (0.3 and 1.0 mg/kg) of the CB1 receptor agonist WIN55,212-2 (WIN), we observed a significant reduction in aggressive behavior in NL3R451C mice. These findings demonstrate altered synaptic activity in the basolateral amygdala and suggest that the NL3R451C mouse model is a useful preclinical tool to understand the role of CB1 receptor function in aggressive behavior.
- ASD-Associated De Novo Mutations in Five Actin Regulators Show Both Shared and Distinct Defects in Dendritic Spines and Inhibitory Synapses in Cultured Hippocampal Neurons. [Journal Article]
- FCFront Cell Neurosci 2018; 12:217
- Many actin cytoskeleton-regulating proteins control dendritic spine morphology and density, which are cellular features often altered in autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Recent studies using animal mo...
Many actin cytoskeleton-regulating proteins control dendritic spine morphology and density, which are cellular features often altered in autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Recent studies using animal models show that autism-related behavior can be rescued by either manipulating actin regulators or by reversing dendritic spine density or morphology. Based on these studies, the actin cytoskeleton is a potential target pathway for developing new ASD treatments. Thus, it is important to understand how different ASD-associated actin regulators contribute to the regulation of dendritic spines and how ASD-associated mutations modulate this regulation. For this study, we selected five genes encoding different actin-regulating proteins and induced ASD-associated de novo missense mutations in these proteins. We assessed the functionality of the wild-type and mutated proteins by analyzing their subcellular localization, and by analyzing the dendritic spine phenotypes induced by the expression of these proteins. As the imbalance between excitation and inhibition has been suggested to have a central role in ASD, we additionally evaluated the density, size and subcellular localization of inhibitory synapses. Common for all the proteins studied was the enrichment in dendritic spines. ASD-associated mutations induced changes in the localization of α-actinin-4, which localized less to dendritic spines, and for SWAP-70 and SrGAP3, which localized more to dendritic spines. Among the wild-type proteins studied, only α-actinin-4 expression caused a significant change in dendritic spine morphology by increasing the mushroom spine density and decreasing thin spine density. We hypothesized that mutations associated with ASD shift dendritic spine morphology from mushroom to thin spines. An M554V mutation in α-actinin-4 (ACTN4) resulted in the expected shift in dendritic spine morphology by increasing the density of thin spines. In addition, we observed a trend toward higher thin spine density with mutations in myosin IXb and SWAP-70. Myosin IIb and myosin IXb expression increased the proportion of inhibitory synapses in spines. The expression of mutated myosin IIb (Y265C), SrGAP3 (E469K), and SWAP-70 (L544F) induced variable changes in inhibitory synapses.
- Sex Differences in Visual Motion Processing. [Journal Article]
- CBCurr Biol 2018 Aug 03
- The importance of sex as a biological variable has recently been emphasized by major funding organizations  and within the neuroscience community . Critical sex-based neural differences are ind...
The importance of sex as a biological variable has recently been emphasized by major funding organizations  and within the neuroscience community . Critical sex-based neural differences are indicated by, for example, conditions such as autism spectrum disorder (ASD) that have a strong sex bias with a higher prevalence among males [51, 3]. Motivated by this broader context, we report a marked sex difference in a visual motion perception task among neurotypical adults. Motion duration thresholds [4, 5]-the minimum duration needed to accurately perceive motion direction-were considerably shorter for males than females. We replicated this result across three laboratories and 263 total participants. This type of enhanced performance has previously been observed only in special populations including ASD, depression, and senescence [6-8]. The observed sex difference cannot be explained by general differences in speed of visual processing, overall visual discrimination abilities, or potential motor-related differences. We also show that while individual differences in motion duration thresholds are associated with differences in fMRI responsiveness of human MT+, surprisingly, MT+ response magnitudes did not differ between males and females. Thus, we reason that sex differences in motion perception are not captured by an MT+ fMRI measure that predicts within-sex individual differences in perception. Overall, these results show how sex differences can manifest unexpectedly, highlighting the importance of sex as a factor in the design and analysis of perceptual and cognitive studies.
- Development of a Preoperative Predictive Model for Reaching the Oswestry Disability Index Minimal Clinically Important Difference for Adult Spinal Deformity Patients. [Journal Article]
- SDSpine Deform 2018 Sep - Oct; 6(5):593-599
- CONCLUSIONS: A successful model was built predicting ODI MCID. Most important predictors were not modifiable surgical parameters, indicating that baseline clinical and radiographic status is a critical factor for reaching ODI MCID.
- Neurologic Comorbidities Predict Proximal Junctional Failure in Adult Spinal Deformity. [Journal Article]
- SDSpine Deform 2018 Sep - Oct; 6(5):576-586
- CONCLUSIONS: In this study, risk factors identified for the development of PJF included nonmechanical neurologic comorbidities, emphasizing the need to look beyond radiographic alignment in order to reduce the incidence of PJF.
New Search Next
- [Social cognition in schizophrenia and autism spectrum disorder: Points of convergence and functional differences]. [Journal Article]
- EEncephale 2018 Aug 16
- CONCLUSIONS: The present revue of the studies which directly compare individuals with ASD and schizophrenia on different domains of social cognition indicates that both disorders exhibit differences and similarities with regard to behavioral performances. Results in neuroimaging indicate different neurocognitive mechanisms underlie apparently similar social-cognitive impairments. Further studies are needed to better explore and describe divergent neurocognitive mechanisms in ASD and schizophrenia in order to provide treatment and remediation methods that take into account the specificities of neurocognitive processes in the two disorders.