- An investigation of the association between seizures, autism symptomology, and developmental functioning in young children. [Journal Article]
- DNDev Neurorehabil 2018 Feb 20; :1-9
- CONCLUSIONS: The present study emphasizes the need for early identification and diagnosis of both ASD and seizure disorders, as timely intervention for these two conditions may be related to improved outcomes for young children.
- [Robot-assisted atrial septal defect closure in adults: first experience in Russia]. [Journal Article]
- KKhirurgiia (Mosk) 2018; (2):4-20
- CONCLUSIONS: In view of favorable course of postoperative period, no significant specific complications and encouraging immediate results we can talk about endoscopic robot-assisted ASD closure in adults as a safe and effective alternative to surgical treatment.
- Variations of the Functional Brain Network Efficiency in a Young Clinical Sample within the Autism Spectrum: A fNIRS Investigation. [Journal Article]
- FPFront Physiol 2018; 9:67
- Autism is a neurodevelopmental disorder with dimensional behavioral symptoms and various damages in the structural and functional brain. Previous neuroimaging studies focused on exploring the differe...
Autism is a neurodevelopmental disorder with dimensional behavioral symptoms and various damages in the structural and functional brain. Previous neuroimaging studies focused on exploring the differences of brain development between individuals with and without autism spectrum disorders (ASD). However, few of them have attempted to investigate the individual differences of the brain features among subjects within the Autism spectrum. Our main goal was to explore the individual differences of neurodevelopment in young children with Autism by testing for the association between the functional network efficiency and levels of autistic behaviors, as well as the association between the functional network efficiency and age. Forty-six children with Autism (ages 2.0-8.9 years old) participated in the current study, with levels of autistic behaviors evaluated by their parents. The network efficiency (global and local network efficiency) were obtained from the functional networks based on the oxy-, deoxy-, and total-Hemoglobin series, respectively. Results indicated that the network efficiency decreased with age in young children with Autism in the deoxy- and total-Hemoglobin-based-networks, and children with a relatively higher level of autistic behaviors showed decreased network efficiency in the oxy-hemoglobin-based network. Results suggest individual differences of brain development in young children within the Autism spectrum, providing new insights into the psychopathology of ASD.
- Clinical and Neuro-radiological Presentation of Tuberous Sclerosis Complex in Tertiary Care Centre. [Journal Article]
- MMMymensingh Med J 2018; 27(1):144-148
- Tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) is a common neurocutaneous disorder characterized by hamartomatous changes in the lungs, brain, kidneys, skin, heart, and other organs. This retrospective study was d...
Tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) is a common neurocutaneous disorder characterized by hamartomatous changes in the lungs, brain, kidneys, skin, heart, and other organs. This retrospective study was done to see the clinical presentation and neuro imaging pattern of TSC in a tertiary care centre of Bangladesh and was conducted at Pediatric Neurology Unit of Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujib Medical University (BSMMU), Dhaka, Bangladesh from January 2013 to December 2013. Among total 10 patients male-female ratio was 3:2. Commonest age group was 1-5 year in 50%. Common cutaneous abnormality was facial angiofibroma in 100%. Commonest neurological presentation was epilepsy in100%, ASD in 20% patient. Common renal manifestation was multicystic kidney disease (20%). CT/MRI findings were periventricular calcifications in 70% patients. In this study facial angiofibroma is the most common skin manifestation and epilepsy is the common neurological presentationandperiventricular calcification is the most common neuro-radiological findings in tuberous sclerosis complex.
- Mitochondrial dysfunction and autism: comprehensive genetic analyses of children with autism and mtDNA deletion. [Journal Article]
- BBBehav Brain Funct 2018 Feb 20; 14(1):4
- CONCLUSIONS: MtDNA alterations are more common in patients with ASD than in control individuals. MtDNA deletions are not isolated genetic alterations found in ASD; they coexist either with other ASD-associated genetic risk factors or with alterations in genes responsible for intergenomic communication. These findings indicate that mitochondrial dysfunction is not rare in ASD. The occurring mtDNA deletions in ASD may be mostly a consequence of the alterations of the causative culprit genes for autism or genes responsible for mtDNA maintenance, or because of the harmful effect of environmental factors.
- Lateral inhibition in the autism spectrum: an SSVEP study of visual cortical lateral interactions. [Journal Article]
- NNeuropsychologia 2018 Feb 16
- Circuit level brain dysfunction has been suggested as a common mechanism through which diverse genetic risk factors and neurobiological sequelae lead to the core features of autism spectrum disorder ...
Circuit level brain dysfunction has been suggested as a common mechanism through which diverse genetic risk factors and neurobiological sequelae lead to the core features of autism spectrum disorder (Geschwind 2009; Port et al. 2014). An important mediator of circuit level brain activity is lateral inhibition, and a number of authors have suggested that lateral inhibition may be atypical in ASD. However, evidence regarding putative atypical lateral connections in ASD is mixed. Here we employed a steady state visual evoked potential (SSVEP) paradigm to further investigate lateral connections within a group of high functioning adults with ASD. At a group level, we found no evidence of altered lateral interactions in ASD. Exploratory analyses reveal that greater ASD symptom severity (increased ADOS score) is associated with increased short range lateral inhibition. These results suggest that lateral interactions are not altered in ASD at a group-level, but that subtle alterations in such neurobiological processes may underlie the heterogeneity seen in the autism spectrum in terms of sensory perception and behavioural phenotype.
- Further Evaluation of a Practitioner Model for Increasing Eye Contact in Children With Autism. [Journal Article]
- BMBehav Modif 2018 Feb 01; :145445518758595
- Cook et al. recently described a progressive model for teaching children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) to provide eye contact with an instructor following a name call. The model included the fo...
Cook et al. recently described a progressive model for teaching children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) to provide eye contact with an instructor following a name call. The model included the following phases: contingent praise only, contingent edibles plus praise, stimulus prompts plus contingent edibles and praise, contingent video and praise, schedule thinning, generalization assessments, and maintenance evaluations. In the present study, we evaluated the extent to which modifications to the model were needed to train 15 children with ASD to engage in eye contact. Results show that 11 of 15 participants acquired eye contact with the progressive model; however, eight participants required one or more procedural modifications to the model to acquire eye contact. In addition, the four participants who did not acquire eye contact received one or more modifications. Results also show that participants who acquired eye contact with or without modifications continued to display high levels of the behavior during follow-up probes. We discuss directions for future research with and limitations of this progressive model.
- A multinational observational investigation of illness perceptions and quality of life among patients with a Fontan circulation. [Journal Article]
- CHCongenit Heart Dis 2018 Feb 18
- CONCLUSIONS: The Fontan sample's more negative perceptions of CHD were likely a reflection of life with a more complex defect. Illness perceptions appear to account for unique differences in QOL between groups of varying CHD complexity. Psychosocial screening and interventions may be important treatment components for patients with CHD, particularly those with Fontan circulations.
- Sparse Multi-view Task-Centralized Learning for ASD Diagnosis. [Journal Article]
- MLMach Learn Med Imaging 2017; 10541:159-167
- It is challenging to derive early diagnosis from neuroimaging data for autism spectrum disorder (ASD). In this work, we propose a novel sparse multi-view task-centralized (Sparse-MVTC) classification...
It is challenging to derive early diagnosis from neuroimaging data for autism spectrum disorder (ASD). In this work, we propose a novel sparse multi-view task-centralized (Sparse-MVTC) classification method for computer-assisted diagnosis of ASD. In particular, since ASD is known to be age- and sex-related, we partition all subjects into different groups of age/sex, each of which can be treated as a classification task to learn. Meanwhile, we extract multi-view features from functional magnetic resonance imaging to describe the brain connectivity of each subject. This formulates a multi-view multi-task sparse learning problem and it is solved by a novel Sparse-MVTC method. Specifically, we treat each task as a central task and other tasks as the auxiliary ones. We then consider the task-task and view-view relations between the central task and each auxiliary task. We can use this task-centralized strategy for a highly efficient solution. The comprehensive experiments on the ABIDE database demonstrate that our proposed Sparse-MVTC method can significantly outperform the existing classification methods in ASD diagnosis.
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- Dural Tears in Adult Deformity Surgery: Incidence, Risk Factors, and Outcomes. [Journal Article]
- GSGlobal Spine J 2018; 8(1):25-31
- CONCLUSIONS: The rate of DT was 10.8% in an ASD cohort. This is similar to rates of DT reported following surgery for degenerative pathology. A history of prior spine surgery, decompression, interbody fusion, and osteotomies are all associated with an increased risk of DT, but decompression is the only independent risk factor for DT.