- In vivo evaluation of hypolipidemic and antioxidative effect of 'Ajwa' (Phoenix dactylifera L.) date seed-extract in high-fat diet-induced hyperlipidemic rat model. [Journal Article]
- BPBiomed Pharmacother 2018 Aug 17; 107:675-680
- In the present study, we investigated the hypolipidemic and hepatoprotective potential of the commercially available crushed Ajwa date seed-extract on the toxicity caused by the atorvastatin in high-...
In the present study, we investigated the hypolipidemic and hepatoprotective potential of the commercially available crushed Ajwa date seed-extract on the toxicity caused by the atorvastatin in high-fat diet (HFD)-induced hyperlipidemic rats. Male albino rats were divided into two main groups, Group I (normal control) and Group II (HFD); Group II was further divided into four subgroups: Group IIa (HFD control), Group IIb (Atorvastatin: A10)-6 rats were administered with 10 mg/kg atorvastatin daily for 30 days, Group IIc (Ajwa seed extract: AJ)-6 rats were given 1000 mg/kg Ajwa seed extract daily for 30 days, Group IId (AJ + A10)-6 rats were given Ajwa seed extract 1000 mg/kg and Atorvastatin 10 mg/kg daily for 30 days. The data obtained suggested that Ajwa seed extract lowered the serum cholesterol level in HFD rats and demonstrated the hepatoprotective effect in combination with atorvastatin by reducing the levels of ALT and AST. In conclusion, it protected the tissues from the detrimental effects of hyperglycemia and enhanced antioxidant activity. Furthermore, the dose-limiting toxicity of atorvastatin may be reduced if the Ajwa seed extract is incorporated in the current treatment regimens to treat hyperlipidemia in hypercholesteremic individuals.
- Effects of dietary arginine on intestinal antioxidant status and immunity involved in Nrf2 and NF-κB signaling pathway in juvenile blunt snout bream, Megalobrama amblycephala. [Journal Article]
- FSFish Shellfish Immunol 2018 Aug 17
- The present study assessed the effects of dietary arginine on intestinal antioxidant status and immunity involved in Nrf2 and NF-κB signaling pathway in juvenile blunt snout bream. Fish were fed thre...
The present study assessed the effects of dietary arginine on intestinal antioxidant status and immunity involved in Nrf2 and NF-κB signaling pathway in juvenile blunt snout bream. Fish were fed three practical diets with graded arginine levels (0.87%, 1.62% and 2.70%) for 8 weeks. Compared with the control group (0.87%), the counts of white blood cell (WBC), red blood cell (RBC) and hemoglobin (HGB) content were significantly improved at dietary arginine levels of 1.62% (P<0.05). Plasma albumin (ALB) levels and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activities were significantly improved at dietary arginine levels of 1.62% and 2.70% (P < 0.05). Alanine transaminase (ALT) activity was decreased in fish fed with 1.62% dietary arginine level (P<0.05). Plasma glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activities, copper-zinc superoxide dismutase (Cu/Zn-SOD) activities, total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC) activities and glutathione (GSH) levels were significantly increased at dietary arginine levels of 1.62% and 2.70% (P<0.05). Plasma total superoxide dismutase (T-SOD) activities and catalase (CAT) activities were significantly improved in fish fed with 1.62% dietary arginine level. Significantly higher manganese superoxide dismutase (Mn-SOD) activity was observed in fish fed with 1.62% dietary arginine level compared with 2.70% dietary arginine level (P<0.05). 1.62% and 2.70% dietary arginine levels significantly lowered malondialdehyde (MDA) levels. The relative expression of nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) was significantly increased in fish fed with 1.62% dietary arginine level, inversely, the relative expression of Kelch-like ECH-associated protein 1 (Keap1) showed a converse trend. 1.62% and 2.70% dietary arginine levels significantly improved the relative expressions of Cu/Zn-SOD, GPx and CAT. Furthermore, 2.70% dietary arginine level significantly lowered the relative expression of Mn-SOD compared with the control group and 1.62% dietary arginine levels. The relative expressions of Interleukin 1β (IL-1β), tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) were lowered in fish fed with 1.62% dietary arginine level. 1.62% and 2.70% dietary arginine levels significantly improved the relative expressions of transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β). Hematocrit (HCT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST) activities, interleukin 8 (IL-8) and interleukin 10 (IL-10) expressions were not significantly affected by the graded dietary arginine levels. These results suggest that the optimal dietary arginine level plays an important role in enhancing antioxidant and immune status to maintain the intestinal health of juvenile blunt snout bream.
- Pattern differences between newborn and adult rats in cisplatin-induced hepatorenal toxicity. [Journal Article]
- CBChem Biol Interact 2018 Aug 17
- Although cisplatin (CIS) has been associated with serious adverse effects, such as hepatotoxicity and nephrotoxicity in adult rats, there is few reports on its use in newborn rats. The aim of this st...
Although cisplatin (CIS) has been associated with serious adverse effects, such as hepatotoxicity and nephrotoxicity in adult rats, there is few reports on its use in newborn rats. The aim of this study was to evaluate acute toxic effects of CIS in newborn rats. Adult and newborn Wistar rats received CIS by the i. p. route, at the dose of 5 or 10 mg/kg. After 24 h of treatment, blood, kidney, and liver were excised from the animals and parameters of renal and hepatic functions, oxidative stress markers were determined. Acute administration of CIS caused an increase of AST activity and urea levels, suggesting hepatorenal toxicity in newborn and adult rats. However, the pattern and intensity of damage was different between ages and tissues. Newborn rats showed more pronouncedly oxidative stress damage, characterized by an increase in reactive species and protein carbonyl levels, lower NPSH content and highest inhibition in δ-ALA-D and CAT activities. Besides that, it was observed a faster molecular response in protein levels involved with apoptosis and oxidative stress response; whereas in the beginning the damage was less severe in the kidney than in the liver of adult rats. Thus, the present study shows that there are body response differences between adult and newborn rats to CIS acute exposure being that newborn rats are more susceptible than adults.
- Identification of Specific MicroRNA Biomarkers in Early Stages of Hepatocellular Injury, Cholestasis, and Steatosis in Rats. [Journal Article]
- TSToxicol Sci 2018 Aug 17
- Recently, studies on circulating microRNAs (miRNAs) as potential biomarkers of drug-induced liver injury (DILI) have received increasing attention. It has been demonstrated that miR-122 and miR-192, ...
Recently, studies on circulating microRNAs (miRNAs) as potential biomarkers of drug-induced liver injury (DILI) have received increasing attention. It has been demonstrated that miR-122 and miR-192, which are liver enriched, could be potential biomarkers of DILI; however, these miRNAs cannot discern types of injuries.In the present study, we comprehensively analyzed time-dependent plasma miRNA profiles in rats with drug- or chemical-induced hepatocellular injury, cholestasis, and steatosis with high-throughput miRNA sequencing. To enable the comparison of miRNA expression levels between DILI models with different severity and peak time of injuries, the stages of injury were defined as early, middle and late, according to cluster patterns of miRNA expression profiles. Through differential analysis, we characterized miRNAs that were specifically up- or down-regulated in each DILI model. Several miRNAs were dramatically changed earlier than traditional biomarkers such as alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST). For example, in an acetaminophen (APAP)-induced hepatocellular injury model, plasma let-7b-5p was up-regulated as early as 3 h after dosing, whereas a significant change in ALT level was observed at 12 h. We then focused on the DILI type-specific miRNAs in plasma that were up-regulated at the early stage of injury. RT-qPCR analysis validated that let-7b-5p and miR-1-3p for hepatocellular injury, miR-143-3p and miR-218a-5p for cholestasis, and miR-320-3p for steatosis models showed significant increases in the early stage of the injuries. The present study suggests the utility of miRNAs as specific biomarkers for the early detection of DILI.
- [Protective effects of rosiglitazone on hepatic ischemia reperfusion injury in rats]. [Journal Article]
- ZNZhong Nan Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban 2018 Jul 28; 43(7):732-737
- To explore the protective effect of rosiglitazone (RGZ) on hepatic ischemia reperfusion injury (HIRI) and the underlying mechanisms. Methods: A rat model of ischemia-reperfusion injury was establish...
To explore the protective effect of rosiglitazone (RGZ) on hepatic ischemia reperfusion injury (HIRI) and the underlying mechanisms. Methods: A rat model of ischemia-reperfusion injury was established by clamping the left and middle lobe of liver with noninvasive vascular clamp. A total of 30 Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into a sham group, an HIRI group, and a RGZ group (10 rats in each group). Two hours after reperfusion, serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) activities, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) level, malondialdehyde (MDA) content and catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities were examined. HE staining was used to observe liver pathological morphology. The liver peroxisome proliferators-activated receptor γ (PPAR-γ), p-PPAR-γ, nuclear factor related factor 2 (Nrf-2), antioxidant response element (ARE), heme oxygenase 1 (HO-1) and quinone oxidoreductase-1 (NQO-1) were detected by Western blot. Results: Compared with the HIRI group, the levels of ALT, AST, LDH and MDA in the RGZ group were significantly decreased (all P<0.05), while the levels of Nrf-2, ARE, HO-1 and NQO-1 in the RGZ group were significantly increased. The hepatic swelling, necrosis and pathological damage were decreased (all P<0.05). In addition, there was no difference in the level of PPAR-γ between the 2 groups (P>0.05). Conclusion: PPAR-γ agonist RGZ can attenuate HIRI, which may be related to activating Nrf2/ARE signaling pathway and enhancement of antioxidant ability.
- Discriminating Clinical and Biological Features in Malaria and Dengue Patients. [Journal Article]
- JAJ Arthropod Borne Dis 2018; 12(2):108-118
- CONCLUSIONS: Thrombocytopenia and hepatic dysfunction were more common in dengue, while anaemia, splenomegaly, jaundice and convulsions were more frequent in falciparum malaria. Neurological sequelae and cases of acute renal failure were almost equal in both the infections.
- Hepatic Ischemic Preconditioning Alleviates Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury by Decreasing TIM4 Expression. [Journal Article]
- IJInt J Biol Sci 2018; 14(10):1186-1195
- Ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI) of the liver is a primary cause of post-liver-surgery complications and ischemic preconditioning (IPC) has been verified to protect against ischemia-reperfusion inju...
Ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI) of the liver is a primary cause of post-liver-surgery complications and ischemic preconditioning (IPC) has been verified to protect against ischemia-reperfusion injury. TIM-4 activation plays an important role in macrophage mediated hepatic IRI. This study aimed to determine whether IPC protects against hepatic IRI through inhibiting TIM-4 activation. In this study, a model of warm liver ischemia (90 min) and reperfusion for 6 h was used. Mice were subjected to ischemia-reperfusion injury with or without ischemic preconditioning and TIM4 blocking antibody. Western blot was determined to detect the expression of TIM4 protein and mitochondrial apoptosis-related protein expression. Liver function was evaluated using the level of alanine transaminase (ALT) and aspartate transaminase (AST), cell apoptosis and pathological examination. We found that compared with the control group, ischemic preconditioning reduced IRI by decreasing hepatocyte apoptosis, ALT, AST, CD68 and CD3 positive cells, tissue myeloperoxidase activity(MPO), and downregulating TIM-4 expression. TIM4 blocking could reduce CD68 and CD3 positive cells in liver. Furthermore, activated monocytes transfusion significantly abolished the protect effect of IPC with increased hepatocyte apoptosis, ALT, AST, CD68 and CD3 positive cells while TIM-4 knockdown monocytes lost this effect. These results suggested that IPC protects against hepatic IRI by downregulating TIM-4 and indicated TIM-4 would be a novel therapeutic target to minimize IRI.
- Astemizole Inhibits mTOR Signaling and Angiogenesis by Blocking Cholesterol Trafficking. [Journal Article]
- IJInt J Biol Sci 2018; 14(10):1175-1185
- Cholesterol plays a key role in membrane protein function and signaling in endothelial cells. Thus, disturbing cholesterol trafficking is an effective approach for inhibiting angiogenesis. We recentl...
Cholesterol plays a key role in membrane protein function and signaling in endothelial cells. Thus, disturbing cholesterol trafficking is an effective approach for inhibiting angiogenesis. We recently identified astemizole (AST), an antihistamine drug, as a cholesterol trafficking inhibitor from a phenotypic screen. In this study, we found that AST induced cholesterol accumulation in the lysosome by binding to the sterol-sensing domain of Niemann-Pick disease, type C1 (NPC1), a lysosomal surface protein responsible for cholesterol transport. Inhibition of cholesterol trafficking by AST led to the depletion of membrane cholesterol, causing SREBP1 nuclear localization. The depletion of membrane cholesterol resulted in dissociation of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) from the lysosomal surface and inactivation of mTOR signaling. These effects were effectively rescued by addition of exogenous cholesterol. AST inhibited endothelial cell proliferation, migration and tube formation in a cholesterol-dependent manner. Furthermore, AST inhibited zebrafish angiogenesis in a cholesterol-dependent manner. Together, our data suggest that AST is a new class of NPC1 antagonist that inhibits cholesterol trafficking in endothelial cells and angiogenesis.
- [The Comprehensive Geriatric Assessment predicts healthy life expectancy better than health checkups in older people: JAGES cohort study]. [Journal Article]
- NRNihon Ronen Igakkai Zasshi 2018; 55(3):367-377
- CONCLUSIONS: Therefore, CGA performed using questionnaire predicts healthy life expectancy better than a health checkup based on a blood test.
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- Direct identification and antimicrobial susceptibility testing of microorganisms from positive blood cultures following isolation by lysis-centrifugation. [Journal Article]
- DMDiagn Microbiol Infect Dis 2018 Jun 22
- We evaluated a direct from positive blood culture pelleting procedure that utilizes a lysis-centrifugation protocol for the identification of microorganisms by MALDI-TOF MS with subsequent antimicrob...
We evaluated a direct from positive blood culture pelleting procedure that utilizes a lysis-centrifugation protocol for the identification of microorganisms by MALDI-TOF MS with subsequent antimicrobial susceptibility testing (AST) and rapid methicillin- and beta-lactam-resistance screening. The identification evaluation was performed on 125 cultures and resulted in the correct genus-level identification in 91.2% of cultures and a species-level concordance of 82.4% compared to routine subcultured growth. For the AST evaluation, susceptibility results from direct pelleting and subcultured growth for 187 cultures were compared; an average ±2-fold dilution agreement of 98.2% (1650/1681) and 98.6% (1375/1394) for Gram-negatives and -positives, respectively, was found. Major errors fell below 5% except for MRSA, which was falsely reported as oxacillin sensitive 17.2% (11/66) of the time. Lastly, the sensitivity and specificity of rapid MRSA screening were 94.7% (36/38) and 90.0% (9/10), respectively, while the ESBL screening results were 90.3% (65/72) and 100.0% (13/13) respectively.