- Impact of vitamin D receptor and binding protein gene polymorphisms in clinical and laboratory data of HCV patients: Cross sectional study. [Journal Article]
- MMedicine (Baltimore) 2018; 97(8):e9881
- Potential relationship of vitamin D, vitamin D receptor (VDR), and vitamin D binding protein (DBP) have been suggested in the pathophysiology of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. The aim of this obs...
Potential relationship of vitamin D, vitamin D receptor (VDR), and vitamin D binding protein (DBP) have been suggested in the pathophysiology of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. The aim of this observational study is to determine vitamin D levels, and VDR and DBP genetic polymorphism according demographic and laboratory data in chronic HCV patients (CHC).A total of 148 CHC patients gave serum samples for testing 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25 (OH)D) level by immunochemiluminometric assay (<20 ng/mL defined as deficient) and donated blood samples to allelic discrimination analysis using TaqMan assays. Analyzed single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were: VDR-rs7975232 (ApaI) C>A, rs731236 A>G (TaqI), rs1544410 C>T (BsmI), rs10735810 T>C (FokI) and carrier globulin/binding protein (GC)-rs4588 and rs7041 and the haplotype bAt [CCA]. Hepatic fibrosis was assessed using Fib-4 and Forns index.Eighty-two (54.40%) patients demonstrated deficiency of vitamin D and this was associated to AST (P = .019 [CI: 1.003-1.034]), total cholesterol (P = .038 [CI: 1.004-1.164]), fibrosis grade (P < .001 [CI: 0.000-0.844]), and FokI (P = .028) allele T presence. Association was found between VDR polymorphism and fibrosis (BsmI andTaqI), triglycerides (TaqI), and HDL (FokI). DBP polymorphism was associated to HCV genotype (GC rs7041), previous HCV treatment, and GGT (GC rs4588).In conclusion, low frequency of vitamin D deficiency was found, but VDR polymorphisms were frequently associated to fibrosis grade suggesting that they could be used as disease evaluation markers to understand the mechanisms underlying the virus-host interaction.
- Dysfunctional immunoregulation in human liver allograft rejection associated with compromised galectin-1/CD7 pathway function. [Journal Article]
- CDCell Death Dis 2018 Feb 20; 9(3):293
- Regulatory T cells in rejected allograft patients display an inability to control responder T cells. Galectin-1 (Gal1) inhibits responder T cells through binding CD7. We investigated whether the dysf...
Regulatory T cells in rejected allograft patients display an inability to control responder T cells. Galectin-1 (Gal1) inhibits responder T cells through binding CD7. We investigated whether the dysfunctional immunoregulation in liver allograft rejection patients results from reduced regulatory T-cell Gal1 expression and/or responder T-cell CD7 expression. Circulating regulatory T cells and responder T cells were profiled from 31 acute rejection transplant patients, 85 transplant patients in remission, and 40 healthy controls. CD7+ and CD7- responder T cells were co-cultured with regulatory T cells to assess regulatory T-cell suppressor function. Gal1-small interfering RNA was used to silence regulatory T-cell Gal1. The CD7+ cell percentage was inversely correlated with AST, ALT, and GGT levels. The proportions of CD7+ responder T cells and Gal1+ regulatory T cells were higher in healthy controls than in transplant patients in remission and lowest in acute rejection transplant patients. Notably, CD7+ responder T-cell susceptibility to Gal1+ regulatory T-cell control was ranked in the same manner. Silencing Gal1 expression in regulatory T cells reduced their ability to suppress CD7+ (but not CD7-) responder T cells. Additionally, the proportions of CD43+ and CD45+ responder T cells were higher in healthy controls than in acute rejection transplant patients. CD43 co-expression (but not CD45 co-expression) on CD7+ responder T cells promoted their apoptosis in a Gal1-dependent manner. In sum, dysfunctional immunoregulation in liver allograft rejection patients can be partly attributed to reduced regulatory T-cell Gal1 expression and reduced responder T-cell CD7 expression. Responder T-cell CD43 downregulation in acute rejection patients may further contribute to reduced responder T-cell responsiveness to regulatory T-cell control.
- Infectious intracranial aneurysms: a systematic review of epidemiology, management, and outcomes. [Review]
- JNJ Neurointerv Surg 2018 Feb 20
- Infectious intracranial aneurysms (IIAs) are a rare cerebrovascular complication of systemic infections induced by microbial infiltration and degradation of the arterial vessel wall. Studies on the e...
Infectious intracranial aneurysms (IIAs) are a rare cerebrovascular complication of systemic infections induced by microbial infiltration and degradation of the arterial vessel wall. Studies on the epidemiology and management of IIAs are limited to case reports and retrospective single-center studies, and report a large variability in epidemiological features, management, and outcomes due to the limited sample size. We conducted a systematic review of all published papers on IIAs in the English literature using MEDLINE and SCOPUS database from January 1950 to June 2017. A total of 288 publications describing 1191 patients with IIA (1398 aneurysms) were included and reviewed for epidemiological features, disease features, treatment and outcome. All patients were merged into a single cohort and summary data are presented. The majority of reported IIAs are distally located, relatively small (<5 mm), involve the anterior circulation, are associated with a relatively high rate of rupture, and demonstrate a propensity to multiplicity of aneurysms. Sensitive diagnosis of IIAs requires digital subtraction angiography and not CT angiography or MR angiography. Treatment of ruptured, symptomatic, or enlarging IIAs has evolved over the last 50 years. Endovascular therapy is associated with a high success rate and low morbidity compared with microsurgical and medical management. A treatment algorithm for the management of patients with IIA in various contexts is proposed and the need for prospective multicenter studies is emphasized.
- A comparison of direct aspiration versus stent retriever as a first approach ('COMPASS'): protocol. [Journal Article]
- JNJ Neurointerv Surg 2018 Feb 20
- CONCLUSIONS: This paper details the design of the COMPASS trial, a randomized, blinded adjudicator, concurrent, controlled trial of patients treated with either ADAPT or SRFL approaches in order to evaluate whether ADAPT results in non-inferior functional outcome.
- The effects of intermittent whole-body hypoxic preconditioning on patients with carotid artery stenosis. [Journal Article]
- WNWorld Neurosurg 2018 Feb 17
- CONCLUSIONS: Intermittent hypoxic preconditioning can change the vital signs and hematological indexes of patients with carotid artery stenosis without causing new postoperative complications or organ damage.
- The effect of ibuprofen on muscle, hematological and renal function, hydric balance, pain, and performance during intense long-distance running. [Journal Article]
- JSJ Strength Cond Res 2018 Feb 14
- The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of prophylactic use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAID, i.e. Ibuprofen) on physical performance, vertical jump, muscle biomarkers, live...
The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of prophylactic use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAID, i.e. Ibuprofen) on physical performance, vertical jump, muscle biomarkers, liver, kidney, acute pain and hydration status of participants in the 42 km Trail Running Challenge, a long-distance race integrated over mountain routes. The sample consisted of 20 males randomly divided into two groups: a control group (CG) and an experimental group (EG) with 12 completing the race (41.1±8.8 y; 75.7±12.1 kg) and included in the final analysis. The EG were administered an ibuprofen capsule (400 mg) fifteen minutes before the beginning of the race, and again after 5 hours of racing if the route was not yet complete. There were significant time main effects for creatine kinase (CK) (p=0.001; f Cohen=0.25), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) (p<0.001; f Cohen=2.05), aspartate aminotransferase (AST) (p=0.002; f Cohen=1.53), creatinine (p=0.002; f Cohen=2.24), urea (p=0.001; f Cohen=2.25), heart rate (HR) (p<0.001; f Cohen=4.88) and pain scores (p<0.001; f Cohen=1.93) which all increased during the race. There was a group × time interaction for squat jump (SJ) which significantly decreased in only the CG (p= 0.045; f Cohen=2.17). This may have been related to increased frequency of pain reported after the race in the gastrocnemius of the CG compared to the EG (p<0.05). It was concluded that ibuprofen intake did not reduce muscle damage during the competition but maintained leg muscular power performance (i.e. vertical jump), possibly by reducing gastrocnemius muscle pain.
- Antibiotic Susceptibility Determination within One Cell Cycle at Single Bacterium Level by Stimulated Raman Metabolic Imaging. [Journal Article]
- ACAnal Chem 2018 Feb 20
- The widespread use of antibiotics has significantly increased the number of resistant bacteria, which has also increased the urgency of rapid bacterial detection and profiling their antibiotic respon...
The widespread use of antibiotics has significantly increased the number of resistant bacteria, which has also increased the urgency of rapid bacterial detection and profiling their antibiotic response. Current clinical methods for antibiotic susceptibility testing (AST) rely on culture and require at least 16 to 24 h to conduct. Therefore, there is an urgent need for a rapid method that can test the susceptibility of bacteria in a culture-free manner. Here we demonstrate a rapid AST method by monitoring the glucose metabolic activity of live bacteria at the single cell level with hyperspectral stimulated Raman scattering (SRS) imaging. Using vancomycin susceptible (VSE) and resistant (VRE) enterococci E. faecalis as models, we demonstrate that the metabolic uptake of deuterated glucose in a single living bacterium can be quantitatively monitored via hyperspectral SRS imaging. Remarkably, the metabolic activity of susceptible bacteria responds differently to antibiotics from the resistant strain within only 0.5 h from the addition of antibiotics. Therefore, bacterial susceptibility and the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of antibiotics can be determined within one cell cycle. Our metabolic imaging method is applicable to other bacteria species including E. coli, K. Pneumoniae and S. aureus, and different antibiotics, regardless of their mechanisms of inhibiting or killing bacteria.
- Hypercholesterolemia and hypertriglyceridemia as risk factors of liver dysfunction in children with inflammation receiving total parenteral nutrition. [Journal Article]
- CNClin Nutr ESPEN 2018; 23:148-155
- CONCLUSIONS: Monitoring the hepatic profile from the early stage of TPN is necessary. Changes in the plasma lipid and hepatic profiles were frequently observed during the infusion of TPN, in patients with inflammation. Patients >2 years old and those with high TG and HDL levels were more likely to have elevated GGT levels. Hypercholesterolemia was associated with ALT alterations. Strategies to attenuate these issues should be considered in the early stages, in patients with TPN.
- Hepatic Regeneration and Reno-Protection by Fish oil, Nigella sativa Oil and Combined Fish Oil/Nigella sativa Volatiles in CCl4Treated Rats. [Journal Article]
- JOJ Oleo Sci 2018 Feb 19
- The aim of the present research was to investigate the effect of fish oil, crude Nigella sative oil and combined fish oil/Nigella sative volatile oil as hepato-regenerative and renal protective suppl...
The aim of the present research was to investigate the effect of fish oil, crude Nigella sative oil and combined fish oil/Nigella sative volatile oil as hepato-regenerative and renal protective supplements. The oils were administered as emulsions to rat model with liver injury induced by CCl4. Plasma activities of transaminases (AST and ALT) were evaluated as liver function indicators, while plasma creatinine and urea and creatinine clearance were determined as markers of kidney function. Plasma malondialdehyde (MDA), nitrite (NO) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) were estimated to assess the exposure to oxidative stress and subsequent inflammation. Liver fat was extracted and their fatty acids´ methyl esters were determined using gas chromatography. Results showed that plasma activities of AST and ALT were significantly higher in CCl4control group compared to control healthy group. Plasma levels of creatinine and urea increased significantly in CCl4control, while creatinine clearance was reduced significantly in the same group. All rat treated groups given the three oil emulsions showed improvement in liver function pointing to the initiation of liver regeneration. The combination of fish oil/Nigella sative volatiles showed the most promising regenerative activity. Oxidative stress and inflammation which were increased significantly in CCl4control group showed improvement on administration of the three different oil emulsions. Fatty acids methyl ester of liver fat revealed that rats treated with fish oil/Nigella sative volatile oil presented the highest content of unsaturated fatty acids (45.52% ± 0.81) while fish oil showed the highest saturated fatty acids (53.28% ± 1.68). Conclusion; Oral administration of oil emulsions of native fish oil, Nigella sative crude oil and combined fish oil/Nigella sative volatile oil reduced liver and kidney injury in rat model of CCl4through exerting anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activity. Fish oil/Nigella sative volatile oil emulsion was the most promising hepato-regenerative and reno-protective formula among the different groups.
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- The involvement of Nrf2 antioxidant signaling pathway in the protection of monocrotaline-induced hepatic sinusoidal obstruction syndrome in rats by (+)-catechin hydrate. [Journal Article]
- FRFree Radic Res 2018 Feb 20; :1-261
- Hepatic sinusoidal obstruction syndrome (HSOS) is a rare and life-threatening liver disease. (+)-catechin is a natural dietary flavonol with high antioxidant capacity. This study aims to investigate ...
Hepatic sinusoidal obstruction syndrome (HSOS) is a rare and life-threatening liver disease. (+)-catechin is a natural dietary flavonol with high antioxidant capacity. This study aims to investigate the involvement of nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) antioxidant signaling pathway in the protection of (+)-catechin hydrate (CAT) against monocrotaline (MCT)-induced HSOS. Results of serum alanine/aspartate aminotransferases (ALT/AST) activities, total bilirubin (TBil) and bile acids (TBA) amounts, liver histological observation, scanning electron microscope evaluation and hepatic metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) expression all demonstrated the protection of CAT against MCT-induced HSOS in rats. CAT attenuated MCT-induced liver oxidative injury in rats and the formation of cellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) in human hepatic sinusoidal endothelial cells (HHSECs). CAT enhanced Nrf2 nuclear translocation in livers from MCT-treated rats and in HHSECs treated with MCT, and further increased the expression of Nrf2-dependent genes including catalytic or modify subunit of glutamate-cysteine ligase (GCLC/GCLM), heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) and NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1). Moreover, GCL inhibitorL-buthionine-(S, R)-sulfoximine (BSO), NQO1 inhibitor diminutol (Dim) and HO-1 inhibitor zinc protoporphyrin (ZnPP) all abrogated CAT-provided the protection against MCT-induced cytotoxicity in HHSECs. The results of molecular docking analysis indicated the potential interaction of CAT with the Nrf2 binding site in kelch-like ECH-associated protein-1 (Keap1) protein. In summary, this study demonstrated the critical involvement of Nrf2 antioxidant signaling pathway in CAT-provided the protection against MCT-induced HSOS.