- Hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis is a sign of poor outcome in pediatric Epstein-Barr virus-associated post-transplant lymphoproliferative disease after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. [Journal Article]
- PTPediatr Transplant 2018 Nov 11; :e13319
- EBV-related PTLD developing after HSCT is a potentially life-threatening disease. HLH is uncommon after allogeneic HSCT. Data on outcome of patients with PTLD and concomitant HLH after allogeneic HSC...
EBV-related PTLD developing after HSCT is a potentially life-threatening disease. HLH is uncommon after allogeneic HSCT. Data on outcome of patients with PTLD and concomitant HLH after allogeneic HSCT are limited. In this retrospective study, we collected demographic, clinical, laboratory, and outcome data for 408 patients who underwent allogeneic HSCT from 2006 to 2015. Graft source included CB (n = 135; 33.1%), PBSCs (n = 34; 8.3%), and BM (n = 239; 58.6%). Eight out of 408 patients (2%) developed EBV-PTLD with a median age at HSCT of 5.9 years (range: 2.3-17.3). All eight patients received ATG as part of the conditioning regimen. Graft source was PBSC in three patients (37.5%), BM in four patients (50%), and CB in one patient (12.5%). Donors were matched unrelated in five patients (62.5%) and matched sibling in three patients (37.5%). Seven out of eight patients developed EBV-PTLD within the first 100-day post-HSCT. Lymph node biopsy revealed early lesions in three patients, polymorphic in three patients, and monomorphic PTLD in two patients. Three patients (37.5%) died within 1 month of EBV-PTLD diagnosis. All deceased patients developed HLH manifestations with two of them meeting HLH diagnostic criteria and one having an incomplete workup. PTLD after allogeneic HSCT with manifestations of HLH is associated with high mortality. Early identification and treatment of EBV-PTLD seems imperative to control the disease, especially if signs of HLH are evolving.
- Vanadate inhibits transcription of the rat insulin receptor gene via a proximal sequence of the 5'flanking region. [Journal Article]
- BOBiochim Open 2018; 7:26-32
- Vanadate, a protein tyrosine phosphatase inhibitor which elicits insulin-like effects, has previously been shown to inhibit expression of the insulin receptor gene at the transcriptional level in rat...
Vanadate, a protein tyrosine phosphatase inhibitor which elicits insulin-like effects, has previously been shown to inhibit expression of the insulin receptor gene at the transcriptional level in rat hepatoma cells. In an attempt to identify the DNA sequence and transcription factors potentially involved in this effect, a fragment of the proximal 5'flanking region of the IR gene (-1143/-252 upstream the ATG codon) has been cloned and functionally characterized. RNase protection allowed the identification of several transcription start sites in the conserved region of the gene, among which two major sites at -455 and -396. Upon fusion to the luciferase gene and transient transfection into hepatoma cells, the -1143/-252 fragment showed promoter activity. This was unaffected by deletion of the -1143/-761 sequence, but markedly decreased (90%) by additional deletion of the -760/-465 sequence. Treatment of hepatoma cells with vanadate led to a dose-dependent decrease in promoter activity of the 1143/-252, -760/-252 and -464/-252 constructs (change relative to untreated cells, 40, 55 and 23% at 125 μM, and 70, 85 and 62% at 250 μM, respectively). These data suggest that although the entire DNA sequence upstream the transcription start sites is probably involved in vanadate-induced inhibition, the short sequence downstream of position -464 and is sufficient for inhibition. Potential targets of vanadate are the transcription factors FoxO1 and HMGA1, two downstream targets of the insulin signaling pathway which have been shown to mediate the inhibitory effect of insulin on IR gene expression.
- Enrichment of Autophagy and Proteosome Pathways in Breast Muscle of Feed Efficient Pedigree Male Broilers. [Journal Article]
- FPFront Physiol 2018; 9:1342
- Background: Feed efficiency (FE) is an important genetic trait in poultry and livestock. Autophagy (self-eating) and proteosomes are cellular processes that remove damaged cell components (e.g., pro...
Background: Feed efficiency (FE) is an important genetic trait in poultry and livestock. Autophagy (self-eating) and proteosomes are cellular processes that remove damaged cell components (e.g., proteins, organelles). As evidence of extensive protein oxidation was observed in Pedigree Male (PedM) broilers exhibiting a low FE (LFE) phenotype compared to a high FE (HFE) phenotype, the main goal of this study was to assess gene and protein expression of the autophagy and proteosome pathways in breast muscle obtained in PedM broilers exhibiting HFE and LFE phenotypes. Methods: Feed efficiency was calculated as weight gain divided by feed intake gain in individual PedM broilers that were measured between 6 and 7 weeks of age. Targeted gene expression was conducted on breast muscle using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) to determine mRNA expression of genes associated with the autophagy pathway; AMP-activated protein kinase alpha 1 (AMPKα1), mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), Beclin 1, and autophagy genes (Atg) 3, Atg7, and Atg16L1. Binomial distribution analysis was conducted on transcriptomic and data obtained by RNAseq and shotgun proteomics, respectively on the same set of tissues for genes associated with autophagy, vacuole formation, and proteosome expression. Results: Greater efficiency was attained in the HFE PedM broilers by greater weight gain on the same amount of feed consumed resulting in FEs of 0.65 ± 0.01 and 0.46 ± 0.01 in the HFE and LFE phenotypes, respectively. Targeted mRNA expression analysis revealed significant (P < 0.05) elevations in AMPKa1, mTOR, Atg16L1, and Atg7 and a marginal (P = 0.07) elevation in Beclin1. Binomial distribution analysis transcriptomic and proteomic data revealed significant skews favoring autophagy-, vacuole-, and proteosome-related genes in the HFE phenotype. These results indicate that the autophagy and proteosome expression is enhanced in the HFE compared to the LFE pedigree male broiler phenotype suggesting that protein and organelle quality control may be enhanced in high feed efficiency.
- Membrane-binding domains in autophagy. [Review]
- CPChem Phys Lipids 2018 Nov 08
- Autophagy is an intracellular degradation system conserved among eukaryotes that mediates the degradation of various biomolecules and organelles. During autophagy, a double membrane-bound organelle t...
Autophagy is an intracellular degradation system conserved among eukaryotes that mediates the degradation of various biomolecules and organelles. During autophagy, a double membrane-bound organelle termed an autophagosome is synthesized de novo and delivers targets from the cytoplasm to the lysosomes for degradation. Autophagosome formation involves complex and dynamic membrane rearrangements, which are regulated by dozens of autophagy-related (Atg) proteins. In this review, we summarize our current knowledge of membrane-binding domains and motifs in Atg proteins and discuss their roles in autophagy.
- Host Directed Therapy for Chronic Tuberculosis via Intrapulmonary Delivery of Aerosolized Peptide Inhibitors Targeting the IL-10-STAT3 Pathway. [Journal Article]
- SRSci Rep 2018 Nov 09; 8(1):16610
- Here we demonstrate that aerosols of host directed therapies [HDT] administered during a chronic Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) infection have bactericidal effect. The pulmonary bacterial load of C...
Here we demonstrate that aerosols of host directed therapies [HDT] administered during a chronic Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) infection have bactericidal effect. The pulmonary bacterial load of C57BL/6 mice chronically infected with Mtb was reduced by 1.7 and 0.6 log10CFU after two weeks of treatment via aerosol delivery with ST3-H2A2, [a selective peptide inhibitor of the STAT3 N-terminal domain] or IL10R1-7 [selective peptide inhibitor for the IL-10Ra] respectively and when compared to control mice treated with IL10R1-14 [peptide inhibitor used as negative control] or untreated mice infected with Mtb. Accordingly, when compared to control mice, the bactericidal capacity in mice was enhanced upon treatment with peptide inhibitors ST3-H2A2 and IL10R1-7 as evidenced by higher pulmonary activities of nitric oxide synthase, NADPH oxidase and lysozyme enzymes and decreased arginase enzyme activity. This therapy also modulated important checkpoints [Bcl2, Beclin-1, Atg 5, bax] in the apoptosis-autophagy pathways. Thus, even in the absence of antibiotics, targeting of the host pulmonary IL-10-STAT3 pathway can significantly reduce the Mtb bacilli load in the lungs, modulate the host own bactericidal capacity and apoptosis and autophagy pathways. Our approach here also allows targeting checkpoints of the lungs to determine their specific contribution in pulmonary immunity or pathogenesis.
- Successful long-term hematological and immunological reconstitution by autologous cord blood transplantation combined with post-transplant immunosuppression in two children with severe aplastic anemia. [Case Reports]
- PTPediatr Transplant 2018 Nov 08; :e13320
- aUCBT is a valuable curative option in pediatric patients with refractory idiopathic SAA and no available matched sibling or unrelated donors. Experience in the use of autologous cord blood units in ...
aUCBT is a valuable curative option in pediatric patients with refractory idiopathic SAA and no available matched sibling or unrelated donors. Experience in the use of autologous cord blood units in patients with SAA is limited and private for-profit cord blood-banking programs are controversial. We report the successful treatment of two patients with SAA, aged 15 and 24 months, with autologous cord blood combined with immunosuppression. After conditioning with 200 mg/kg cyclophosphamide and ATG, 7.5 mg/kg, 32.2 × 107 /kg, and 3.8 × 107 /kg autologous cord blood nucleated cells were infused, respectively. One of our patients underwent transplantation after failure of IST. Both patients received post-transplant immunosuppression with cyclosporine for 12 months. They remain disease-free 6 years post-transplantation.
- Overexpression of ATG8 in Arabidopsis stimulates autophagic activity and increases nitrogen remobilization efficiency and grain filling. [Journal Article]
- PCPlant Cell Physiol 2018 Nov 08
- Autophagy knock-out mutants in maize and in Arabidopsis are impaired for nitrogen recycling and exhibit reduced levels of nitrogen remobilization to their seeds. An important question is then to dete...
Autophagy knock-out mutants in maize and in Arabidopsis are impaired for nitrogen recycling and exhibit reduced levels of nitrogen remobilization to their seeds. An important question is then to determine whether higher autophagy activity could at the reverse improve N remobilization efficiency and seed protein content, and under which circumstances.As autophagy machinery involves many genes amongst which 18 are important for the core machinery, the choice of which ATG gene to manipulate to increase autophagy was examined. We choose ATG8 overexpressions since it has been shown in yeast that it could increase autophagosome size and autophagic activity. The results we report here are original as they show for the first time that increasing ATG8 gene expression in plant increases autophagosome number and promotes autophagy activity. More importantly our data demonstrate that, when cultivated under full nitrate conditions, known to repress N remobilization due to sufficient N uptake from the soil, N remobilization efficiency can be nevertheless sharply and significantly increased by overexpressing ATG8 genomic sequences under the control of ubiquitin promoter. We show that overexpressors have improved seed N% and at the same time reduced N waste in their dry remains. In addition, we show that overexpressing ATG8 does not modify vegetative biomass nor harvest index, thus does not affect plant development.
- Evidence for an Adaptation of a Phage-Derived Holin/Endolysin System to Toxin Transport in Clostridioides difficile. [Journal Article]
- FMFront Microbiol 2018; 9:2446
- The pathogenicity locus (PaLoc) of Clostridioides difficile usually comprises five genes (tcdR, tcdB, tcdE, tcdA, tcdC). While the proteins TcdA and TcdB represent the main toxins of this pathogen, T...
The pathogenicity locus (PaLoc) of Clostridioides difficile usually comprises five genes (tcdR, tcdB, tcdE, tcdA, tcdC). While the proteins TcdA and TcdB represent the main toxins of this pathogen, TcdR and TcdC are involved in the regulation of their production. TcdE is a holin family protein, members of which are usually involved in the transport of cell wall-degrading enzymes (endolysins) for phage-induced lysis. In the past, TcdE has been shown to contribute to the release of TcdA and TcdB, but it is unclear whether it mediates a specific transport or rather a lysis of cells. TcdE of C. difficile strains analyzed so far can be produced in three isoforms that are initiated from distinct N-terminal ATG codons. When produced in Escherichia coli, we found that the longest TcdE isoform had a moderate effect on cell growth, whereas the shortest isoform strongly induced lysis. The effect of the longest isoform was inhibitory for cell lysis, implying a regulatory function of the N-terminal 24 residues. We analyzed the PaLoc sequence of 44 C. difficile isolates and found that four of these apparently encode only the short TcdE isoforms, and the most closely related holins from C. difficile phages only possess one of these initiation codons, indicating that an N-terminal extension of TcdE evolved in C. difficile. All PaLoc sequences comprised also a conserved gene encoding a short fragment of an endolysin remnant of a phage holin/endolysin pair. We could produce this peptide, which we named TcdL, and demonstrated by bacterial two-hybrid analysis a self-interaction and an interaction with TcdB that might serve to mediate TcdE-dependent transport.
- Complete mitochondrial genome of Echinophylliaaspera (Scleractinia, Lobophylliidae): Mitogenome characterization and phylogenetic positioning. [Journal Article]
- ZZookeys 2018; (793):1-14
- Lack of mitochondrial genome data of Scleractinia is hampering progress across genetic, systematic, phylogenetic, and evolutionary studies concerning this taxon. Therefore, in this study, the complet...
Lack of mitochondrial genome data of Scleractinia is hampering progress across genetic, systematic, phylogenetic, and evolutionary studies concerning this taxon. Therefore, in this study, the complete mitogenome sequence of the stony coral Echinophylliaaspera (Ellis & Solander, 1786), has been decoded for the first time by next generation sequencing and genome assembly. The assembled mitogenome is 17,697 bp in length, containing 13 protein coding genes (PCGs), two transfer RNAs and two ribosomal RNAs. It has the same gene content and gene arrangement as in other Scleractinia. All genes are encoded on the same strand. Most of the PCGs use ATG as the start codon except for ND2, which uses ATT as the start codon. The A+T content of the mitochondrial genome is 65.92% (25.35% A, 40.57% T, 20.65% G, and 13.43% for C). Bayesian and maximum likelihood phylogenetic analysis have been performed using PCGs, and the result shows that E.aspera clustered closely with Sclerophylliamaxima (Sheppard & Salm, 1988), both of which belong to Lobophylliidae, when compared with species belonging to Merulinidae and other scleractinian taxa used as outgroups. The complete mitogenome of E.aspera provides essential and important DNA molecular data for further phylogenetic and evolutionary analyses of corals.
New Search Next
- Post-transplantation cyclophosphamide-based haploidentical versus Atg-based unrelated donor allogeneic stem cell transplantation for patients younger than 60 years with hematological malignancies: a single-center experience of 209 patients. [Journal Article]
- BMBone Marrow Transplant 2018 Nov 06
- Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT) is limited by availability of HLA-matched sibling donors (MSDs). The alternative use of unrelated donors (UDs) is currently challenged b...
Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT) is limited by availability of HLA-matched sibling donors (MSDs). The alternative use of unrelated donors (UDs) is currently challenged by haploidentical-related donors (HRDs). We retrospectively analyzed 209 consecutive patients younger than 60 years undergoing allo-HSCT from UDs (n = 128) or HRDs (n = 81). Cumulative incidences of grade 3-4 acute (17 vs. 2%, p = 0.003) and 2-year moderate and severe chronic (20 vs. 2%, p < 0.001) GVHD were significantly higher with UD. Progression-free survival (PFS) was significantly better with HRD (51 vs. 69%, p = 0.019), without significant difference in the cumulative incidence of relapse (CIR), non-relapse mortality (NRM), and overall survival (OS). Multivariate analyses confirmed the lower risk of acute and chronic GVHD (grade 2-4, HR = 0.43, p = 0.005; grade 3-4, HR = 0.20, p = 0.017; all grades, HR = 0.43, p = 0.012; moderate or severe, HR = 0.12, p = 0.004), better PFS (HR = 0.61, p = 0.046), and GRFS (HR = 0.47, p = 0.001) with HRD. This was confirmed in match-paired analysis. In the absence of MSDs, HRD could be considered as a suitable alternative for patients younger than 60 years.