- Characterization of the complete mitochondrial genome of Biston marginata (Lepidoptera: Geometridae) and phylogenetic analysis among lepidopteran insects. [Journal Article]
- IJInt J Biol Macromol 2018 Feb 17
- The complete mitochondrial genome (mitogenome) of Biston marginata (Lepidoptera: Geometridae) was determined and annotated. The circular genome is 15,470 bp long and it contains the entire set of 37 ...
The complete mitochondrial genome (mitogenome) of Biston marginata (Lepidoptera: Geometridae) was determined and annotated. The circular genome is 15,470 bp long and it contains the entire set of 37 genes usually present in lepidopteran mitogenomes. The nucleotide composition of the genome is highly A + T biased, accounting for 81.20%, with a slightly positive AT skewness (0.028), indicating the occurrence of more As than Ts, as found in other Geometridae species. Except for cox1 gene starts with non-canonical initial codon CGA, all protein-coding genes start with ATN codon. Three of the 13 PCGs (protein coding gene) had an incomplete termination codon, T or TA, while the others terminated with TAA. All tRNA genes are predicted to fold into typical clover-leaf secondary structure, except for the trnS1 (AGN), in which the dihydrouridine (DHU) arm could not form a stable stem-loop structure. The A + T-rich region of 343 bp is comprised of non-repetitive sequences, but have several distinctive features, including the motif "ATAGA" followed by a 19 bp poly-T stretch, a microsatellite-like (TA)7element next to the ATTTA motif. The phylogenetic analyses support the view that the B. marginata is closely related to the Biston pantrinaria, and confirm that Biston marginata belongs to the family Geometridae.
- A glycomics approach to discover novel renal biomarkers in birds by administration of cisplatin and diclofenac to chickens. [Journal Article]
- PSPoult Sci 2018 Feb 14
- Avian species have a unique renal structure and abundant blood flow into the kidneys. Although many birds die due to nephrotoxicity caused by chemicals, there are no early biomarkers for renal lesion...
Avian species have a unique renal structure and abundant blood flow into the kidneys. Although many birds die due to nephrotoxicity caused by chemicals, there are no early biomarkers for renal lesions. Uric acid level in blood, which is generally used as a renal biomarker, is altered when the kidney function is damaged by over 70%. Therefore, early biomarkers for kidney injury in birds are needed. In humans, glycomics has been at the forefront of biological and medical sciences, and glycans are used as biomarkers of diseases, such as carcinoma. In this study, a glycomics approach was used to screen for renal biomarkers in chicken. First, a chicken model of kidney damage was generated by injection of diclofenac or cisplatin, which cause acute interstitial nephritis (AIN) and acute tubular necrosis (ATN), respectively. The nephrotoxicity levels were determined by a blood chemical test and histopathological analysis. The plasma N-glycans were then analyzed to discover renal biomarkers in birds. Levels of 14 glycans increased between pre- and post administration in kidney-damaged chickens in the diclofenac group, and some of these glycans had the same presumptive composition as those in human renal carcinoma patients. Glycan levels did not change remarkably in the cisplatin group. It is possible that there are changes in glycan expression due to AIN, but they do not reflect ATN. Although further research is needed in other species of birds, glycans are potentially useful biomarkers for AIN in avian species.
- Correlates of missed clinic visits among youth living with HIV. [Journal Article]
- ACAIDS Care 2018 Feb 17; :1-8
- Youth living with HIV (YLH) have significant problems with attending their medical appointments. Poor attendance, consequently, predicts viral non-suppression and other negative health outcomes. To i...
Youth living with HIV (YLH) have significant problems with attending their medical appointments. Poor attendance, consequently, predicts viral non-suppression and other negative health outcomes. To identity targets of intervention, this cross-sectional study examined correlates of past-year missed clinic visits among YLH (N = 2125) attending HIV clinics in the United States and Puerto Rico. Thirty-six percent of YLH missed two or more visits in the past year. Several factors were associated with missed visits in our regression model. Among sociodemographic characteristics and HIV disclosure status, females (adjusted odds ratio [OR] = 1.63, compared to males), Black YLH or YLH of mixed racial heritage (AORs = 1.76, 1.71, respectively, compared to White YLH), YLH with an unknown route of infection (AOR = 1.86, compared to YLH with perinatal infection), and YLH endorsing HIV disclosure (AOR = 1.37, compared to YLH not endorsing disclosure) were at greater risk for missed visits. Among behavioral health risks, YLH who endorsed marijuana use (AOR = 1.42), frequent other drug use (AOR = 1.60), or a history of incarceration (AOR = 1.27) had greater odds of missed visits than youth not endorsing these risks. Finally, two social-cognitive resources emerged as protective factors: adherence self-efficacy (AOR = .28) and social support (AOR = .88). We discuss how providers working with YLH can improve this population's retention outcomes.
- Intracerebral electroencephalography in targeting anterior thalamic nucleus for deep brain stimulation in refractory epilepsy. [Journal Article]
- NNNeurol Neurochir Pol 2018 Feb 06
- CONCLUSIONS: This is the first report of using DBS electrode for intraoperative EEG recordings from the ATN in patients with refractory epilepsy. Since we managed to find the characteristic pattern of bioelectric activity of ATN, this technique seems to be a promising method for targeting this structure during the operation.
- A critical role for both CD40 and VLA5 in angiotensin II-mediated thrombosis and inflammation. [Journal Article]
- FJFASEB J 2018 Feb 08; :fj201701068R
- Angiotensin II (Ang-II)-induced hypertension is associated with accelerated thrombus formation in arterioles and leukocyte recruitment in venules. The mechanisms that underlie the prothrombotic and p...
Angiotensin II (Ang-II)-induced hypertension is associated with accelerated thrombus formation in arterioles and leukocyte recruitment in venules. The mechanisms that underlie the prothrombotic and proinflammatory responses to chronic Ang-II administration remain poorly understood. We evaluated the role of CD40/CD40 ligand (CD40L) signaling in Ang-II-mediated microvascular responses and assessed whether and how soluble CD40L (sCD40L) contributes to this response. Intravital video microscopy was performed to analyze leukocyte recruitment and dihydrorhodamine-123 oxidation in postcapillary venules. Thrombus formation in cremaster muscle arterioles was induced by using the light/dye endothelial cell injury model. Wild-type (WT), CD40-/-, and CD40L-/-mice received Ang-II for 14 d via osmotic minipumps. Some mice were treated with either recombinant sCD40L or the VLA5 (very late antigen 5; α5β1) antagonist, ATN-161. Our results demonstrate that CD40-/-, CD40L-/-, and WT mice that were treated with ATN-161 were protected against the thrombotic and inflammatory effects of Ang-II infusion. Infusion of sCD40L into CD40-/-or CD40L-/-mice restored the prothrombotic effect of Ang-II infusion. Mice that were treated with ATN-161 and infused with sCD40L were protected against accelerated thrombosis. Collectively, these novel findings suggest that the mechanisms that underlie Ang-II-dependent thrombotic and inflammatory responses link to the signaling of CD40L via both CD40 and VLA5.-Senchenkova, E. Y., Russell, J., Vital, S. A., Yildirim, A., Orr, A. W., Granger, D. N., Gavins, F. N. E. A critical role for both CD40 and VLA5 in angiotensin II-mediated thrombosis and inflammation.
- Interaction Effects of Neighborhood Disadvantage and Individual Social Support on Frequency of Alcohol Use in Youth Living with HIV. [Journal Article]
- AJAm J Community Psychol 2018 Feb 05
- Youth living with HIV (YLH) experience multiple disease-related stresses along with the same structural and developmental challenges faced by their uninfected peers; alcohol use among YLH represents ...
Youth living with HIV (YLH) experience multiple disease-related stresses along with the same structural and developmental challenges faced by their uninfected peers; alcohol use among YLH represents a risk behavior by virtue of potential effects on youth health and increased likelihood of engaging in unprotected sex while drinking alcohol. Research aimed at better understanding the interplay of individual- and neighborhood-level influences on alcohol use for YLH is needed to inform interventions. This study examined whether socioeconomic disadvantage (SED) and social support influence, independently and through interaction, alcohol use in YLH. Data from the Adolescent Medicine Trials Network for HIV/AIDS Interventions (ATN) consisted of YLH across 538 neighborhoods in the United States who acquired HIV behaviorally. Neighborhood-specific data were compiled from the 2010 U.S. Census Bureau and matched with individual-level data from the ATN (N = 1,357) to examine effects that contribute to variation in frequency of alcohol use. Other drug use, being male, being non-Black, and older age were associated with greater alcohol use. Higher social support was negatively associated with alcohol use frequency. A cross-level interaction indicated that the association found between decreasing social support and increasing alcohol use frequency was weakened in areas with lower SED. Implications are discussed.
- Epidemiology, treatment, disposition and outcome of patients with acute exacerbation of COPD presenting to emergency departments in Australia and South East Asia: An AANZDEM study. [Journal Article]
- RRespirology 2018 Feb 02
- CONCLUSIONS: Patients treated in ED for AECOPD commonly arrive by ambulance, have a high admission rate and significant in-hospital mortality. Compliance with evidence-based treatments in ED is suboptimal affording an opportunity to improve care and potentially outcomes.
- Biomarkers for acute kidney injury in decompensated cirrhosis: A Prospective Study. [Journal Article]
- NNephrology (Carlton) 2018 Jan 25
- CONCLUSIONS: In patients with decompensated cirrhosis, early measurement of renal biomarkers provides valuable information on AKI etiology. It could also improve AKI diagnosis and prognosis.
- Acute kidney injury due to multiple Hymenoptera stings-a clinicopathological study. [Journal Article]
- CKClin Kidney J 2017; 10(4):532-538
- CONCLUSIONS: AKI due to multiple Hymenoptera stings is severe and is associated with high mortality. On renal histology, ATN and AIN are common.
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- Risk of Ischemic Kidney Injury in Patients With Nonarteritic Anterior Ischemic Optic Neuropathy: A Nationwide Population-based Study. [Journal Article]
- AJAm J Ophthalmol 2018 Jan 09
- CONCLUSIONS: We demonstrated that subjects with NAION are at increased risk of ATN and suggested a possible common mechanistic link between the 2 diseases. These results provide significant evidence that proper patient education and further systemic evaluation of the possibility of ATN development are required in patients with NAION.