- Complete mitochondrial genome of Macrosteles quadrimaculatus (Matsumura) (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae: Deltocephalinae) with a shared tRNA rearrangement and its phylogenetic implications. [Journal Article]
- IJInt J Biol Macromol 2018 Sep 12
- Comparative studies of leafhopper mitochondrial genomes suggest that genome rearrangements are very rare in these insects but that nucleotide sequences are informative of phylogenetic relationships a...
Comparative studies of leafhopper mitochondrial genomes suggest that genome rearrangements are very rare in these insects but that nucleotide sequences are informative of phylogenetic relationships at various levels of divergence. A recent study reported that tRNA cluster trnW-trnC-trnY is rearranged to trnC-trnW-trnY in the Aster Leafhopper, Macrosteles quadrilineatus, an economically important North American species. The complete mitochondrial genome of the East Asian species, Macrosteles quadrimaculatus, sequenced and annotated here for the first time, reveals that this species shares the same tRNA rearrangement, suggesting it is a genus-level trait. The entire mitogenome of M. quadrimaculatus is a circular molecule 15,734 bp in size comprising 37 genes and one control region, which is similar to other studied hemipteran mitogenomes. The whole mitogenome sequence shows heavily A + T biased nucleotide composition (77.7%) and moderately positive AT-skews (0.120). Except for the nad5 gene which starts with TTG and ends with incomplete codon T, all protein-coding genes begin with ATN codons and terminate with TAA. All tRNA genes have typical cloverleaf secondary structures, except for trnS1, in which dihydrouridine (DHU) stem is simplified to form a loop structure. Phylogenetic analysis based on nucleotide sequence datasets recovered Macrosteles as monophyletic and sister to the rest of Deltocephalinae.
- Histologically proven acute tubular necrosis in a series of 27 ICU patients. [Journal Article]
- JCJ Crit Care 2018 Aug 24; 48:130-134
- CONCLUSIONS: Septic and non-septic ICU patients with ATN had similar histopathologic features but lesions were more severe than in septic than in non-septic patients.
- Limitations of Fractional Excretion of Urea in Clinical Practice. [Letter]
- HepHepatology 2018 Sep 04
- We read an article written by Patidar et al. (1) with interest. The authors performed analysis in patients with cirrhosis who were taking diuretics and diagnosed with acute kidney injury (AKI). The o...
We read an article written by Patidar et al. (1) with interest. The authors performed analysis in patients with cirrhosis who were taking diuretics and diagnosed with acute kidney injury (AKI). The objective was to determine the diagnostic ability of fractional excretion of urea (FEUrea) to differentiate prerenal azotemia (PRA), type 1 hepatorenal syndrome (HRS), and acute tubular necrosis (ATN). The authors concluded that FEUrea was an excellent tool for differential diagnosis of AKI in patients with cirrhosis. However, there are limitations of applying FEUrea in clinical settings that should be considered. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
- Characterization and phylogenetic implications of the complete mitochondrial genome of Idiocerinae (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae). [Journal Article]
- IJInt J Biol Macromol 2018 Sep 01
- In this study, we determined and analyzed the complete mitochondrial genomes (mitogenomes) of four species of Idiocerinae (Liocratus salicis, Idioscopus myrica, Populicerus populi and Parocerus lauri...
In this study, we determined and analyzed the complete mitochondrial genomes (mitogenomes) of four species of Idiocerinae (Liocratus salicis, Idioscopus myrica, Populicerus populi and Parocerus laurifoliae) (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae). The Idiocerinae mitogenomes ranged in size from 15,287 (Idioscopus nitidulus) to 16,811 bp (Parocerus laurifoliae). The mitogenomes were highly conserved regarding gene content, gene size, gene order, base composition, codon usage of protein-coding genes, and secondary RNA structures, which were similar to those of other leafhoppers. Most protein-coding genes began with ATN and ended with either TAA or TAG. The secondary structure of the 16S RNA contained six domains with 42 helices, and the 12S RNA comprised three domains with 24 helices. Additionally, a multicopy of tRNA-Ile (AAT) (76 bp) was observed in Liocratus salicis, located between the control region and tRNA-I-tRNA-Q-tRNA-M. Phylogenetic analyses showed that each subfamily was recovered as monophyletic within Cicadellidae, and Deltocephalinae species constituted one clade and tended to be placed at the basal position of the tree as the sister group to the other leafhopper subfamilies. The Megophthalminae, Idiocerinae, and the treehoppers always formed a clade with high support values.
- Environmental enrichment increases prefrontal EEG power and synchrony with the hippocampus in rats with anterior thalamus lesions. [Journal Article]
- HHippocampus 2018 Aug 28
- The anterior thalamic nuclei (ATN) are a major interface between the hippocampus and prefrontal cortex within an extended Papez circuit. Rat models suggest that the deficits caused by ATN damage, whi...
The anterior thalamic nuclei (ATN) are a major interface between the hippocampus and prefrontal cortex within an extended Papez circuit. Rat models suggest that the deficits caused by ATN damage, which is associated with 'diencephalic amnesia', can be ameliorated by environmental enrichment (EE) through unknown mechanisms. We examined whether changes in theta rhythmicity within and between the hippocampus and prefrontal cortex are influenced by EE in rats with ATN lesions. Here we show that ATN lesions and EE produced essentially opposed functional effects in terms of changes in rhythmicity between two consecutive trials when rats forage for chocolate hail. On the second trial, standard-housed rats with ATN lesions showed: a) a clear reduction in prefrontal cortex experience-dependent power change in the theta band and in two adjacent bands; b) little change in the theta band in hippocampal area CA1; and c) only a modest overall reduction in experience-dependent power change at lower theta frequencies in the dentate gyrus. EE exposure prevented the decrease in prefrontal theta power in rats with ATN lesions, and in fact caused a clear increase in prefrontal cortex power across all bands. While ATN lesions did not reliably affect prefrontal-CA1 or prefrontal-dentate theta coherence, EE increased the coherence between prefrontal cortex and area CA1 in both the sham and ATN groups. Thus EE increases functional connectivity between prefrontal cortex and hippocampus via pathways that bypass the ATN, and increases behaviourally-dependent prefrontal rhythmicity. These EEG effects may contribute to improved learning and memory in the ATN-lesion model of diencephalic amnesia. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
- ATN-161 as an Integrin α5β1 Antagonist Depresses Ocular Neovascularization by Promoting New Vascular Endothelial Cell Apoptosis. [Journal Article]
- MSMed Sci Monit 2018 Aug 22; 24:5860-5873
- CONCLUSIONS: Blocking integrin α5β1 by ATN-161 reduced ocular NV by inhibiting MMP-2/MMP-9 expression and promoting the cell apoptosis of ocular NV.
- Mitochondrial genome characteristics of Somena scintillans (Lepidoptera: Erebidae) and comparation with other Noctuoidea insects. [Journal Article]
- GGenomics 2018 Aug 12
- In this study, mitogenome of Somena scintillans (Lepidoptera: Erebidae) were sequenced and compared with other Noctuoidea species. The mitogenome is 15,410 base pairs in length. All 13 protein-coding...
In this study, mitogenome of Somena scintillans (Lepidoptera: Erebidae) were sequenced and compared with other Noctuoidea species. The mitogenome is 15,410 base pairs in length. All 13 protein-coding genes (PCGs) are initiated by ATN codons except cox1 with CGA and all of PCGs terminate with TAA except nad4 with TAG. The codons ACG and CGC are absent. All the tRNA genes could be folded into the typical cloverleaf secondary structure except the trnS1 which not only loses dihydrouridine (DHU) arm but also mutates its anticodon into TCT. In the AT-rich region of the mitogenome the motif 'ATAGA' mutates to 'ATATA' and two copies of 161 bp-tandem repeats and two 'TA' short tandem repeats are founded. Phylogenetic analyses showed that S. scintillans is clustered into subfamily Lymatriinae. The phylogenetic relationships within Noctuoidea is (((Nolidae + (Euteliidae + Noctuidae)) + Erebidae) + Notodontidae).
- Assessment and prediction of acute kidney injury in patients with decompensated cirrhosis with serum cystatin C and urine N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminidase. [Journal Article]
- JGJ Gastroenterol Hepatol 2018 Jul 30
- CONCLUSIONS: Serum cystatin C and urine NAG levels are useful to differentiate types of AKI and are strong predictors for AKI development and mortality in patients with decompensated cirrhosis.
- Automated detection of mesial temporal and temporoperisylvian seizures in the anterior thalamic nucleus. [Journal Article]
- EREpilepsy Res 2018 Jul 23; 146:17-20
- CONCLUSIONS: The pilot study demonstrates that seizures in mesial temporal and temporal-plus epilepsies (i.e., temporoperisylvian) can be detected reliably in the ATN. Further studies are needed to validate these findings.
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- Renal Function in Cirrhosis: A Critical Review of Available Tools. [Journal Article]
- SLSemin Liver Dis 2018; 38(3):230-241
- Patients with cirrhosis have a high prevalence of renal dysfunction. The susceptibility to renal dysfunction is due to both the severe splanchnic arterial vasodilation and the systemic inflammation o...
Patients with cirrhosis have a high prevalence of renal dysfunction. The susceptibility to renal dysfunction is due to both the severe splanchnic arterial vasodilation and the systemic inflammation observed in these patients. An accurate assessment of renal function is recommended in all patients with cirrhosis. Indeed, the renal function assessment guides the management of patients, helps to refine prognosis and to define transplant strategies. Despite its limitations, serum creatinine is still the most used biomarker for the estimation of glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and the assessment of acute kidney injury (AKI) in patients with cirrhosis. New biomarkers of GFR such as cystatin C may improve the assessment of GFR and the prognostic stratification in these patients. AKI is a life-threatening complication and needs a timely management. The differential diagnosis between hepatorenal syndrome (HRS) and acute tubular necrosis (ATN) is tricky in clinical practice. New biomarkers of kidney injury, such as neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin and interleukin-18, represent useful tools in refining the discrimination between HRS and ATN. Patients with HRS need a prompt treatment with vasoconstrictors and albumin and a rapid evaluation for liver transplant eligibility. In this article, the authors reviewed the available tools in the diagnosis and management of renal dysfunction in cirrhosis.